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Preparing for Digital Preservation What is being preserved: Identification and Rights Management issues Norman Paskin International DOI Foundation doi>

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1 Preparing for Digital Preservation What is being preserved: Identification and Rights Management issues Norman Paskin International DOI Foundation doi>

2 Preservation Management of Digital Materials – The Handbook –N. Beagrie/M. Jones/DPC –www.dpconline.org/graphics/handbook/ –3.4 Rights management –4.4 Metadata and Documentation –4.5 Access Digital preservation: an introduction to the standards issues surrounding the deposit of non-print publications –M Bide/E J Potter/A Watkinson Sept 1999 –www.bic.org.uk/digpres.doc Recommended background material doi>

3 1. Identifiers –1.1 Identifiers and metadata –1.2 Interoperability –1.3 Different meanings of identifier –1.4 Persistence 2.Keep a copy - ? 3.Rights –3.1 Accessing definitive copy –3.2 Rights framework Outline of presentation doi>

4 An identifier = an unambiguous string denoting an entity 1.1 Identifiers and metadata doi>

5 An item of metadata = a relationship that someone claims to exist between two entities (indecs), each of which may have an identifier: 1.1 Identifiers and metadata doi> [BookData says] the cover of this book is red Pantone 4567

6 To be useful, an identifier requires some metadata: 1.1 Identifiers and metadata doi> [Books in print says] The title of this identified book is…. Chambers Dictionary

7 entity: something that is identified –Nothing exists until is identified –Entities may include: Abstractions (red); technical means (MP3 player); labels (title); things (book) etc. ontology: structured relationships between entities –an explicit formal specification of how to represent the entities that are assumed to exist in some area of interest and the relationships that hold among them –(such as: page is component of book) –Examples: indecs framework; ONIX; FRBR 1.1 Identifiers and metadata doi>

8 In a distributed environment, there is no one central physical archive A distributed virtual archive requires that all the players and components interoperate 1.2 Interoperability doi>

9 Across media –books, serials, audio, audiovisual, software, abstract works, visual material, etc Across functions –cataloguing, discovery, workflow, rights management, archiving Across levels of metadata –Simple, complex Across linguistic and semantic barriers Across territorial barriers Across technology platforms 1.2 Interoperability doi>

10 Preservation: "How do we interoperate with the future? Preservation issues (identifiers, metadata, rights) are the same as any other interoperability problem 1.2 Interoperability doi>

11 [1] Labels: the output of numbering schemes 1.3 Meanings of identifier doi> – ISBN: ISO 2108:1992 International Standard Book Numbering – ISSN: ISO 3297:1998 International Standard Serial Number – ISRC: ISO 3901:2001 International Standard Recording Code – ISRN: ISO 10444:1997 International Standard Technical Report Number – ISMN: ISO 10957:1993 International Standard Music Number – ISWC: ISO 15707:2001 International Standard Musical Work Code – ISAN: Draft ISO International Standard Audiovisual Number – V-ISAN: Draft ISO Version Identifier for audiovisual works – ISTC: Draft ISO International Standard Text Code – PII: Publisher Item Identifier – etc

12 1.3 Meanings of identifier doi> [2] infrastructure specifications: specifying how to make labels actionable Do not generate a label, but if you have one, specify how to use it in some particular context – URN: Uniform Resource name – URI: Uniform [Universal] Resource Identifier – PURL: Persistent Uniform Resource Locator e.g. ISBN as URN Note same concept in also in other non-digital contexts e.g. ISBN as EAN (978….) bar code or RFID

13 1.3 Meanings of identifier doi> [3] implemented systems Implement labels, through actionable specification, in a managed way – EAN/UPC: physical product codes : – implement ISO bar codes, RFIDs in the supply chain – DOI: digital object identifiers : – implement URN/URIs in intellectual property (+metadata, policy) doi>

14 For use on the Internet, an ISBN label can become a URN specification; an ISBN label can be incorporated into a DOI, which is an implemented identifier system following the URI specification. Is clearer than an ISBN identifier can become a URN identifier; an ISBN identifier can be incorporated into a Digital Object identifier, which is an implemented URI identifier (?) doi> 1.3 Meanings of identifier A particular use of the word may be a mix of meanings [1], [2]& [3]

15 doi> 1.4 Persistence

16 Content URL Printed identifiers, bookmarks, etc doi>

17 404 File not found Content URL doi> "Linkrot": recent estimates 16% in 6 months doi>

18 DOI directory URL Content Assigner DOI directory DOI directory DOI doi> Redirection (resolution) e.g. DOI

19 Assigner Content DOI directory DOI Response Page purchase content view free excerpt get related items get archive copy request permissions Assigner doi> More than just "locate" doi>

20 Archive Response Page purchase content view free excerpt get related items get archive copy request permissions Assigner DOI directory purchase content DOI doi>

21 Persistent identifier –Resolution (redirection) Persistence of the associated metadata Persistence of the resolution system Persistence of the identified copy –digital preservation: migration, emulation, encapsulation Persistence is a matter of social infrastructure –Technology can help but not guarantee 1.4 Persistence doi>

22 Distinguish two issues: 1.The technical specification of what is a URN and a URI etc. –identifiers in sense [2] 2. What this means for practical implementation –identifiers in sense [3] Internet: DOI, URN, URL, PURL doi>

23 See DOI Handbook –4.9 DOI as a URI –4.10 DOI as a URN –6.10 DOI and PURL Aim: persistent across time and unique across network space; useful and implemented PURLs are tied to http and are single redirect etc. URI/URNs are intended to be abstract names –independent of protocols (approx) –DOIs are URIs (formal specification) –DOIs are URNs (in effect) URN and URI proponents disagree (& there are other proposed specs e.g. ARK) Internet persistent id specs doi>

24 URNURL URI Resolution (N2L) (But largely from IETF, W3C did not see need for URN) urn: ftp: gopher: http: doi> Internet persistent id specs

25 IETF formal spec URI scheme for Digital Object identifier –Paskin, Norman; Neylon, Eamonn; Hammond, Tony; Sun, Sam; Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) scheme for Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs); An abstract specification (uri:doi:) –Would be doi: (like tel:) [uri: is not part of the uri spec, unlike urn:] May be a pure name or de-referenced by any service –The namespace provides its own mechanism (Bootstrapping) On its own, its just a specification! –Requires code distribution for any implementation DOI as URI doi>

26 URN is less clear: –Higher level situation muddy –Set of IETF drafts that define URN –Set of registered namespaces (e.g. isbn) DOI could be but isnt- no advantage Unlike URI, provides a specific DNS-based middle layer (RDS) to find the appropriate resolution service Scalability and security questioned; and: Little or no resolution implementation –urn:isbn: can be defined ; but what does it do over and above isbn: ? –neither have a readily available, well known, global, resolution A DOI is more than URN or URI –Adds Policy, business rules, business model –Adds Metadata specifications (cf ISBN, EAN, Visa) DOI as URN doi>

27 1. Identifiers –1.1 Identifiers and metadata –1.2 Interoperability –1.3 Different meanings of identifier –1.4 Persistence 2.Keep a copy - ? 3.Rights –3.1 Accessing definitive copy –3.2 Rights framework Outline of presentation doi>

28 Digital preservation is keeping a copy –What is it you are archiving? (or managing, or counting) –Whats a copy? Something that is the same as –Is A the same as B? –Consider a photocopy….text; author; work; paper; spatial location…. 2. Keep a copy doi> B A ….etc

29 Is A the same as B? is meaningless Can only say Is A the same as B for the purpose of…? the same for some is two different things for others Purpose is defined by attributes –Nothing exists until is identified –…and its relevant attributes identified Structured metadata is needed (e.g. ONIX for digital preservation?) 2. Keep a copy doi> A B

30 How can an identifier be used to locate a specific local copy, which may have different access rights? [see FAQ 26] Resolution of identifiers to global services. Contextualization of requests to those services to local requirements. –split this into separate global and subsequent delegated local resolution steps e.g. OpenURL –a globally-maintained database is clearly the wrong place to hold information on every local collection. –("Linking to the Appropriate Copy: Report of a DOI- Based Prototype"; (O. Beit-Arie, et. al.) D-Lib Magazine, September 2001) A definitive archive copy could be separately identified (with its own DOI) – a matter of policy –Functional granularity 3.1Accessing the definitive copy doi>

31 ISO/IEC MPEG-21 as exemplar Digital item: a structured digital object with a standard representation, identification and metadata The fundamental unit of distribution & transaction in the MPEG-21 framework Maps to Digital Object (DOI, Digital Object Architecture) or Resource (IETF) "Digital objects provide a means of organizing and identifying content for purposes of storage, access or distribution… …metadata may include restrictions on access to digital objects, notices of ownership, and licensing agreements…" (www.xiwt.org/documents/ManagAccess.html) 3.2 Rights framework doi>

32 Vocabulary layer Rights metadata Data Dictionary Use Enforcement of rights & permissions DRM Expression layer Rights Expression Language Machine-capable interpretation of rights: XRML etc Technology Platform Application layer Rendering, environment etc. Metadata set 1 Metadata set Rights framework

33 Standards infrastructure must accommodate many different components (MPEG 21 standard is many parts) But a structured digital object with a standard representation, identification and metadata is "The fundamental unit Must be interoperable with existing metadata standards - e.g. ONIX, SMPTE so need Dictionaries MPEG 21 Rights Data Dictionary & Rights Expression Language –Purpose: "To achieve the goal of expressing rights for all Users of MPEG-21s Digital Items" doi> 3.2 Rights framework

34 Pieces of "rights metadata" used in each semantic structure Describing rights using (meta)data Primary rights events (claims, deals) are described using pieces of data: Rights Statement (claim) [party] owns [right] in [creation] in [time] and [place] Rights Agreement (deal) [party] agreed with [party] in [time] and [place] that [event] doi>

35 Describing rights using (meta)data Rights Statement (claim) [party] owns [right] in [creation] in [time] and [place] Rights Agreement (deal) [party] agreed with [party] in [time] and [place] that [event] Primary rights events (claims, deals) are described using pieces of data: Creations typically have standard identifiers, which may have associated structured data, or which may act as keys to get this data Other pieces of data also need standard identifiers (time, party..) doi>

36 What is "rights metadata"? A mix of data from many sources: Rights events Statements, agreements, transfers, permissions, prohibitions, requirements, assertions, approvals doi>

37 A mix of data from many sources: Rights events Descriptive metadata Creations, Creation types, contributor roles, user roles, tools, classifications, measures What is rights metadata? doi>

38 Rights, persons, intellectual property What is rights metadata? A mix of data from many sources: Rights events Descriptive metadata Legal metadata doi>

39 A mix of data from many sources: Rights events Descriptive metadata Legal metadata Financial metadata Terms, conventions What is rights metadata? These sets of rights metadata" are standardized and maintained in different places. doi>

40 This mix of data from many sources is used in many different places by different people in chains of rights events: Distributed rights management agreement transfer statement agreement permission prohibition permission assertion agreement requirement etc [party] can [verb] [amount] to [creation] at [time] in [place]. Each entity can be expanded to reveal more data doi>

41 agreement transfer statement agreement permission prohibition permission assertion agreement requirement etc Each of these is an information object –an entity - which may need to link to or use information objects in other databases. The information used by each must therefore be standardised/interoperable Distributed rights management doi>

42 Is there a way of getting to this "interoperation of data from many sources"? Yes: work already done which shows how doi> 3.2 Rights framework

43 Interoperability of Data in E-Commerce Systems Produced principles for structured metadata and basis for a data dictionary for interoperability Principles used by DOI, ONIX, etc Applicable to other structured approaches e.g. SMPTE (and creates means of interoperability with them) Now extended to rights transactions: – 2 rdd Consortium (includes IDF) –Accepted as basis of MPEG-21 Rights Data Dictionary indecs (www.indecs.org) doi>

44 A data dictionary is a place where the process of semantics definitions meets technology –MPEG standards have traditionally been about engineering solutions MPEG-21 is a multimedia and a lifecycle framework: its rights terminology does not exist in a vacuum –Interacts with a large number of existing and developing schemes and systems –The number of terms involved is likely to grow steadily and significantly MPEG-21 is taking the lead in establishing an RDD; it is likely to be widely supported if it is flexible and interoperable The MPEG-21 RDD doi>

45 Rights metadata describes what people can (or cant) do with assets, and when, where, how and with what they can do it. Descriptive metadata describes what people did with assets: the same thing, but in the past. The majority of terms are common. Any descriptive term may be relevant to the conditions of an agreement When new works are created through derivation, aggregation or copying, new descriptions are needed which rely on both descriptive & rights metadata Rights & description are interdependent (1) doi>

46 Ownership changes and changes of law or jurisdiction often require querying of descriptive metadata for implementation in systems Requirements can be dependent on description in complex (and unfamiliar) ways Terms from descriptive schemes such as ONIX, Mi3P, DOI-NS, PRISM, MPEG7 Descriptor Schemes, DC and SCORM (and many others) will need to be integrated with any effective RDD Rights & description are interdependent (2) doi>

47 Many content metadata schemes are in use and development and there will be many more These all impact on rights descriptions. Users will be reluctant (or unable) to adopt separate terms for rights descriptions –automated interoperability into and out of RDD terms needed Users need to describe non-digital rights in tandem with digital The meaning of terms in external schemes must be fully mapped to RDD terms so that they form a part of the available data dictionary and enable users to automate their participation Relationship with other metadata schemes doi>

48 To provide a method for generating a set of clear, consistent, structured and integrated terms and definitions, to the required level of granularity, for an MPEG Rights Data Dictionary To provide a comprehensive methodology for the interoperability of terms from different schemes and systems used in the management of rights and permissions through mapping. –Will be used by DOI Application Profiles –DOIs can deliver this required interoperability To describe but in no way prescribe how rights and permissions operate To provide a framework for future governance. Data Dictionary doi>

49 1. Identifiers –1.1 Identifiers and metadata –1.2 Interoperability –1.3 Different meanings of identifier –1.4 Persistence 2.Keep a copy - ? 3.Rights –3.1 Accessing definitive copy –3.2 Rights framework Outline of presentation doi>

50 DRM Technology: Identification and Metadata –Norman Paskin –In: Digital Rights Management: Technical, Economic, Juridical and Political Aspects (ed. Becker et al) –Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science series –In press "Towards a Rights Data Dictionary - Identifiers and Semantics at work on the net". –Norman Paskin –imi insights, June 2002 –http://www.epsltd.com/IMI/IMI.htm (subscription access) Copies available from author on request Additional material doi>

51 Norman Paskin, International DOI Foundation


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