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Collaborative Environments - 1 Collaborative Environments For Todays Multi-Company Teams Exploring the Challenges and Solutions Eric Honour INCOSE Past.

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Presentation on theme: "Collaborative Environments - 1 Collaborative Environments For Todays Multi-Company Teams Exploring the Challenges and Solutions Eric Honour INCOSE Past."— Presentation transcript:

1 Collaborative Environments - 1 Collaborative Environments For Todays Multi-Company Teams Exploring the Challenges and Solutions Eric Honour INCOSE Past President

2 Collaborative Environments - 2 Topics n Multi-Company Teams –Driving factors n Intra-Team Communications –Psychology of dispersed teams –Communications needs –Characteristics and urgency n Collaborative Tools –Five classes of collaboration tools –Examples and references

3 Collaborative Environments - 3 Multi-Company Teams Why Are They So Prevalent?

4 Collaborative Environments - 4 Driving Factors COMPANYPROJECTSPRIME/SUBSPROJECTTEAMSDOMAINTEAMS Growing System Complexity Growing System Complexity Reduced Development Time Reduced Development Time Market Pressures Market Pressures Specialization Specialization System Failures System Failures

5 Collaborative Environments - 5 Example - Automotive MODELMANUFACTURING DIVISION DIVISION MID-SIZE AUTO DESIGN DIVISION BRAKE SYSTEMS SUPPLIER TIRESSUPPLIER ENGINE CONTROL SUPPLIER ENVIRONMENTCONTROLSUPPLIER ELECTRICSYSTEMSSUPPLIER MODELSALES DIVISION DIVISIONCUSTOMER n Domain team of teams n Conflicting goals n Conflicting cultures

6 Collaborative Environments - 6 Team Communications How Can A Dispersed Team of Teams Work?

7 Collaborative Environments - 7 Developing a Team n Well-known psychology –Basic process described for over 40 years n Team culture always happens –Beliefs, Expectations, Shared Values –Heros and Heroines, Myths and Stories –Rituals and Ceremonies n Creating a culture of collaboration –Explicitly reward collaboration traits u Honesty, integrity, sharing, receptivity, consistency, respect –Build trust u Individual involvement in planning, creating, strategizing, structuring FORMING STORMING NORMING PERFORMING ADJOURNING

8 Collaborative Environments - 8 Psychology of Dispersed Teams n Special difficulties –Conflicting goals, conflicting cultures –Constant divergence n Cohesiveness –Extent to which team members like and trust one another –Improves productivity, decision quality, member satisfaction, member interaction, safety. Improve cohesion Goal agreement Goal agreement Frequent interaction Frequent interaction Homogeneity Homogeneity Stability Stability Isolation Isolation Outside pressure Outside pressure Status Status Intergroup competition Intergroup competition Decrease cohesion Disagreement Disagreement Large size Large size Unpleasant experiences Unpleasant experiences Intragroup competition Intragroup competition Domination Domination

9 Collaborative Environments - 9 Boundary Management in Technical Teams n Recent study of 45 high-tech new product development teams n Significant portion of time is spent at team boundaries Individual Time Spent Outside Team14%* Outside Team14%* * Typically limited to few individuals Within Team38% Within Team38% Alone48% Alone48%

10 Collaborative Environments - 10 Boundary Management in Technical Teams n Recent study of 45 high-tech new product development teams n Significant portion of time is spent at team boundaries n Specific boundary roles exist, that change with phase Ambassador Ambassador Buffering, building support, reporting, strategy Task Coordinator Task Coordinator Lateral group coordination, info transfer, planning, negotiating Scout Scout Obtain possibilities from outside - interface with marketing Guard Guard Withhold information, prevent disclosure CREATION DEVELOPMENT DIFFUSION

11 Collaborative Environments - 11 Boundary Management in Technical Teams n High-performing teams did more external interaction than low- performing teams n Internal team dynamics (goals, processes, individual satisfaction) did not correlate with performance n Recent study of 45 high-tech new product development teams n Significant portion of time is spent at team boundaries n Specific boundary roles exist, that change with phase

12 Collaborative Environments - 12 Communications Needs n Communications directions BUSINESSMANAGER TEAMA TEAMB TEAMC Upward Supplier to customer Supplier to customer Reporting Reporting Gaining support Gaining support Downward Customer to supplier Customer to supplier Directing Directing Gaining buy-in Gaining buy-in Lateral Equal to equal Equal to equal Coordination Coordination Information Information Task completion Task completion

13 Collaborative Environments - 13 Communications Needs n Communications directions n Network connectivity CHAIN STAR WYE RING FULL

14 Collaborative Environments - 14 Communications Needs n Communications directions n Network connectivity n Data types to support group roles Individual-Oriented Recognition Recognition Blocking Blocking Domination Domination Avoiding Avoiding Group-Oriented Standards Standards Feedback Feedback Encouragement Encouragement Harmony Harmony Gatekeeping Gatekeeping Task-Oriented New ideas New ideas Solutions Solutions Products Products Questions Questions Information Information Coordination Coordination Evaluation Evaluation

15 Collaborative Environments - 15 Communication Media By Capability

16 Collaborative Environments - 16 Verbal vs NonVerbal Communications VERBAL ISSUES n Words used have different meanings n Amount of information n Bypassing MESSAGEINTENDED MESSAGESENT MESSAGERECEIVED MESSAGEUNDERSTOODSENDFILTERSCHANNELNOISERECEIVEFILTERS NONVERBAL ISSUES n Body language n Use of space n Use of time n Paralanguage - pauses, intonation, rate, tone, volume n Artifacts - objects with or on the person Select method based on content Rich methods for ambiguous, complex content Rich methods for ambiguous, complex content Lean methods for routine, simple content Lean methods for routine, simple content

17 Collaborative Environments - 17 Why Dont Teams Communicate? SKILLS NOT AVAILABLE SKILLS NOT USED SKILLS WEAK, LITTLE USED Evaluate skills Evaluate skills Refresh training Refresh training SKILLS NOT LEARNABLE Replace tools Replace tools Replace people Replace people COMMUNICATIONS IS PUNISHED Replace tools Replace tools Change culture Change culture Change processes Change processes NON-COMMS IS REWARDED Change culture Change culture Change processes Change processes NOTIMPORTANT Change culture Change culture Change rewards Change rewards OBSTACLESEXIST Replace tools Replace tools Change culture Change culture Change processes Change processes SKILLS NEVER KNOWN Acquire tools Acquire tools Formal training Formal training ROOT CAUSE POSSIBLE SOLUTION(S)

18 Collaborative Environments - 18 Collaborative Tools Whats Available Today for Dispersed Teams?

19 Collaborative Environments - 19 Collaboration Tool Classes n Interconnection and security (not covered herein) –Internet, Intranets, Gateways n Data Warehouse –File servers, Configuration management, Internet repositories n Shared Information –Phone, , File transfers, Bulletin boards, Virtual environments n Meeting Support –Teleconferencing, Desktop conferencing, Meeting management n Decision Support –Brainstorm, Categorization, Prioritization, Documentation

20 Collaborative Environments - 20 Data Warehouse Tools n File Servers (Fast, Accurate, Lean) –Intranet-based file structure –Project files appear as separate folder on all stations –Mutual access to project files n Configuration Management (Mid-speed, Accurate, Lean) –Capture and control of baselines –Controlled, multi-level access –Check-in, check-out of files n Public Repositories (Mid-speed, Mid-accurate, Lean) –Internet-based ftp sites –Browser access –Immediate or delayed download

21 Collaborative Environments - 21 Example - Data Warehouse Tools n Rational Software (http://www.rational.com) –ClearCase - version control, workspace management, build management, and process control. –ClearCase Attache - Windows client –ClearGuide - defining tasks, prioritizing activities, allocating resources and tracking project progress –Clear Quest - track and manage change activities - customize and define queries, fields, activities, and states for change request management

22 Collaborative Environments - 22 Shared Information Tools n Telephone (Fast, Mid-accurate, Mid-Rich) –Verbal plus paralanguage (tone, emphasis, pacing) –Excellent for ideas, two-way exchange, social impact n (Fast, Mid-accurate, Lean) –Point-to-point, addressed messages w/ or w/o ensured receipt –Verbal only, without feedback –Excellent for ideas, solutions, coordination, general information n File transfers (Fast, Accurate, Lean) –Rapid, reliable transfer of information –Accurate, in-depth information –Verbal only, without feedback –Excellent for technical solutions, products

23 Collaborative Environments - 23 Shared Information Tools n Bulletin boards (Slow, Mid-accurate, Lean) –Messages posted to site available to many –Linked threads of related messages –Retain communications for longer duration –Excellent for unstructured discussion, broadcast of information to unknown recipients n Virtual environments (Mid-speed, Mid-accurate, Lean) –Structured site with navigation tools –Variety of posting tools, formats –Information available to participants via original tools –Operates real-time (virtual meetings) or as repository –Excellent to provide structure to on-line information sharing, data warehousing

24 Collaborative Environments - 24 Example - Shared Information Tools QuickTools Bulletin Board -

25 Collaborative Environments - 25 Example - Shared Information Tools Mesa Vista -

26 Collaborative Environments - 26 Examples - Shared Information Tools n eRoom -

27 Collaborative Environments - 27 Examples - Shared Information Tools n Multi-User Virtual Environment - SSC San Diego project

28 Collaborative Environments - 28 Meeting Support Tools n Teleconferencing (Fast, Inaccurate, Rich) –Linked conference rooms –Audiovisual T.120 PictureTel standard –Transmitted presentations –Transmitted whiteboard –Excellent for complex, ambiguous discussion, rapid consensus n Desktop conferencing (Fast, Mid-accurate, Mid-rich) –Virtual Presentation –Screen Sharing –Virtual whiteboard –Internet Chat –Audiovisual H.323 Internet standard –Excellent for complex discussion of technical content

29 Collaborative Environments - 29 Meeting Support Tools n Meeting Management (Fast, Accurate, Lean) –Meeting scheduling with joint knowledge of conflicts –Participant agreement on schedules, topics –Agenda following –Excellent for setting expectation, controlling meetings

30 Collaborative Environments - 30 Examples - Meeting Support Tools n PictureTel - –Many related and interactive conferencing tools n Microsoft - –PowerPoint - virtual presentation –Outlook - meeting management, , scheduling –NetMeeting - desktop conferencing n Lotus Notes - –Rich set of interoperating office/conference tools n SunForum n Virtual Rendezvous (Visualtek)

31 Collaborative Environments - 31 Example - Meeting Support Tools Microsoft NetMeeting -

32 Collaborative Environments - 32 Collaborative Process Tools n Brainstorming –Generation of ideas, thoughts –Automated capture and display during brainstorming n Categorization –Tool-aided sorting, binning, categorizing n Prioritization –Rich set of voting methods - chips, ranking, weighting, etc. –Immediate calculation and display –Participant comparisons to facilitate vote evaluation n Documentation –Automated capture of entire collaborative data set –Immediate output in usable formats

33 Collaborative Environments - 33 Collaborative Process Tools n Remote (Slow, Inaccurate, Mid-rich) –Browser-based tools, centrally-facilitated –Asynchronous access over structured time periods –Access from any Internet location –Excellent for semi-structured collaboration from many locations n Local (Fast, Mid-accurate, Rich) –Client-server tools, locally-facilitated –Synchronous access within local or virtual conference –Requires client software to access –Excellent for live, facilitated conferences

34 Collaborative Environments - 34 Example - Collaborative Process Tools Facilitate.com -

35 Collaborative Environments - 35 Example - Collaborative Process Tools GroupSystems -

36 Collaborative Environments - 36 More Information? n Psychology references Gordon, J.R. Organizational Behavior Aamodt, M.G. Applied Industrial/Organizational Psychology Mager and Pipe Analyzing Performance Problems n Tool references picturetel.com sun.commicrosoft.com lotus.comfacilitate.comgroupsystems.com visualtek.comncms.orgrational.com and many others... n Or contact Honourcode for further assistance in developing collaborative environments Eric Honour (850)


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