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1 1 The World of the Modern Systems Analyst and as a Project Manager Lecture 1.

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Presentation on theme: "1 1 The World of the Modern Systems Analyst and as a Project Manager Lecture 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 1 The World of the Modern Systems Analyst and as a Project Manager Lecture 1

2 2 1 The Analyst u Business problem solver l Has practical knowledge u Computers u Programming l Understands business problems l Uses logical methods for solving problems

3 3 1 Analysts Approach to Problem Solving Figure 1-1 Verify that the benefits of solving the problem outweigh the costs Research and understand the problem Define the requirements for solving the problem Develop a set of possible solutions (alternatives) Define the details of the chosen solution Monitor to make sure that you obtain the desired results Decide which solution is best and make a recommendation Implement the solution

4 4 1 Systems that Solve Business Problems u Information systems l Collection of interrelated components that collect, process, store, and provide as output the information needed to complete business tasks u Subsystems u Their supersystems u Functional decomposition l Dividing a system into components based on subsystems that are in turn, divided into smaller subsystems

5 5 1 Information System/Subsystem Figure 1-2

6 6 1 Information Systems and Component Parts Figure 1-3

7 7 1 System Boundary vs. Automation Boundary Figure 1- 4

8 8 1 Types of Information Systems Figure 1-5

9 9 1 Technical Knowledge and Skills of the Analyst u Technology l Understanding of Computers / Peripheral devices u Tools l Software packages l Integrated development environments (IDEs) l CASE tools / Support packages u Techniques l Planning, analysis, design, construction, implementation, and support

10 10 1 Business Knowledge and Skills of the Analyst u Business functions u Organizational structure u Management techniques u Functional work processes

11 11 1 People Knowledge and Skills of the Analyst u Understand how people: l Think l Learn l React to change l Communicate l Work u Integrity and Ethics

12 12 1 Environment Surrounding the Analyst u Types of technology systems encountered l Desktop l Networked desktops l Client-server l Mainframe l Internet, intranet, and extranet u Job titles of systems analyst vary greatly u Places of employment vary from small businesses to large corporations

13 13 1 Analysts Role in Strategic Planning u Work on special projects affecting executives l Business process reengineering u Involvement in strategic plan development process u Provide inputs to information systems strategic plan l Application architecture plan l Technology architecture plan u Implement enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems

14 14 1 The Lecture Series u Introduction: The modern systems analyst and their role as project manager u Lecture 2: Systems analysis tasks u Lecture 3 and 4: Systems design tasks and relational data analysis u Lecture 5: Implementation and support

15 15 1 The Analyst as a Project Manager

16 16 1 Systems Development Lifecycle (SDLC) u Three major activities l Analysis: understanding business needs l Design: conceptualizing computer-system solution l Implementation: construction, testing, and installation u Two additional phases l Project planning l Support

17 17 1 IS Development Phases Figure 2-1

18 18 1 Planning Phase u Define problem u Confirm project feasibility u Produce project schedule u Staff the project u Launch the project

19 19 1 Reasons for Project Failure u Incomplete or changing requirements u Limited user involvement u Lack of executive support u Lack of technical support u Poor Planning u Unclear objectives u Lack of required resources

20 20 1 Reasons for Project Success u Clear system requirement definitions u Substantial user involvement u Support from upper management u Thorough and detailed project plans u Realistic work schedules and milestones

21 21 1 Activities of the Project Planning Phase Figure 2-6

22 22 1 Defining the Problem u Review business needs l Use planning documents l Develop list of expected business benefits u Identify expected system capabilities l Define requirements l Create system scope document l Create context diagram

23 23 1 System Context Diagram Figure 2-8

24 24 1 Producing Project Schedule u Develop work breakdown schedule l List of tasks required for project l Like an outline u Build a PERT/CPM chart l Assists in assigning tasks l Critical path method l Tracking GANTT chart

25 25 1 Confirming Project Feasibility u Economic l Cost/benefit analysis l Cash flow analysis u Organizational and cultural u Technological u Schedule u Resource

26 26 1 Intangibles in Economic Feasibility u Costs and benefits cannot always be measured u Intangible Benefits l Increased levels of service l Customer satisfaction l Survival l Need to develop in-house expertise u Intangible Costs l Reduced employee moral l Lost productivity l Lost customers or sales

27 27 1 Organizational and Cultural Feasibility u Each company has own culture u New system must fit into culture u Evaluate related issues for potential risks l Computer competency l Computer phobia l Perceived loss of control l Shift in power l Fear of job changes l Fear of employment loss l Reversal of longstanding procedures

28 28 1 Technological Feasibility u Does system stretch state-of-the-art? u Does expertise exist in-house for development? u Does a third party need to be involved?

29 29 1 Schedule Feasibility u Interim evaluations to reassess completion dates u Realistic assumptions and estimates l Completion date flexibility l Involvement of experienced personnel l Proper allocation of resources

30 30 1 Resource Feasibility u Team member availability u Team skill levels u Equipment and supplies u Support staff u Physical facilities

31 31 1 Project Staffing u Develop resource plan for the project u Identify and request specific technical staff u Identify and request specific user staff u Organize the project team into work groups u Conduct preliminary training and team building exercises

32 32 1 Launching Project u Oversight committee is finalized and meets to give go-ahead u Formal announcement made u Key question: Are we ready to start?

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