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Peer-to-peer and agent-based computing Peer-to-Peer Computing: Introduction.

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Presentation on theme: "Peer-to-peer and agent-based computing Peer-to-Peer Computing: Introduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 peer-to-peer and agent-based computing Peer-to-Peer Computing: Introduction

2 peer-to-peer and agent-based computing 2 Introduction Peer-to-peer (P2P): –Systems/applications that employ distributed resources to perform a critical function in a decentralised manner Resources: – Computing power – Data (storage space or contents) – Bandwidth – Presence (computer, human, resource) Functions: – Distributed computing – Data/content sharing – Communication/collaboration Decentralisation: – Algorithms – Data/meta-data – Both

3 Evolution of network computing: peer-to-peer and agent-based computing 3 Introduction (Contd) Clients Servers Client-Server Silos Clients Servers Internet Computing Internet Peer-to-Peer

4 peer-to-peer and agent-based computing 4 Introduction (Contd) P2P systems –May retain centralisation in some parts –Typically reside on the edges of Internet –Also found in ad-hoc networks P2P computing is an alternative to –Centralised –Client/server models of computing peers clients server

5 peer-to-peer and agent-based computing 5 A bit of history P2P is a natural evolution: –Software engineering trends towards distributed systems –Availability of powerful networked computers and inexpensive bandwidth P2P is not new (although the term is…) Early attempts: –USENET (1979) for newsgroups (still in use…) –FidoNet (1984) for exchanging message among different BBS systems (still in use…)

6 peer-to-peer and agent-based computing 6 Why P2P? Cost sharing or reduction –Servers bear the brunt of costs in DS Improve scalability and reliability –More peers can be added at will –If a peer fails to deliver, another steps in… Resource aggregation and interoperability –E.g., distributed file systems Increase autonomy Promote anonymity and privacy Support highly dynamic environments Enable ad-hoc communication/collaboration

7 peer-to-peer and agent-based computing 7 Some terminology… Client: –Computing entity that initiates requests –Not able to serve requests Server: –Computing entity that serves requests –Not able to initiate requests Peer: –Computing entity with similar capabilities as other entities in the system P2P Model: –Peers share their resources with a limited interaction with a centralised server –Peers are simultaneously client and servers

8 peer-to-peer and agent-based computing 8 A case study: Napster P2P network ( ) History: –Born in 1999 (universities notice first…) –Mid 2001: shut down service –2002: all but gone! Members can: –Connect directly to other members computers –Search hard drives for digital music files

9 peer-to-peer and agent-based computing 9 A case study: Napster (Contd) How it works: Napsters Computer Participants computer Local MP3 Files Participants computer Local MP3 Files Index of MP3 files and addresses of participants Participants computer Local MP3 Files

10 peer-to-peer and agent-based computing 10 A case study: Napster (Contd) How it works: Napsters Computer Participants computer Local MP3 Files Participants computer Local MP3 Files Index of MP3 files and addresses of participants Participants computer Local MP3 Files 1.Send local file information to Napster

11 peer-to-peer and agent-based computing 11 A case study: Napster (Contd) How it works: Napsters Computer Participants computer Local MP3 Files Participants computer Local MP3 Files Index of MP3 files and addresses of participants Participants computer Local MP3 Files 1.Send local file information to Napster

12 peer-to-peer and agent-based computing 12 A case study: Napster (Contd) How it works: Napsters Computer Participants computer Local MP3 Files Participants computer Local MP3 Files Index of MP3 files and addresses of participants Participants computer Local MP3 Files 1.Send local file information to Napster

13 peer-to-peer and agent-based computing 13 A case study: Napster (Contd) How it works: Napsters Computer Participants computer Local MP3 Files Participants computer Local MP3 Files Index of MP3 files and addresses of participants Participants computer Local MP3 Files 2.Request to search a target file

14 peer-to-peer and agent-based computing 14 A case study: Napster (Contd) How it works: Napsters Computer Participants computer Local MP3 Files Participants computer Local MP3 Files Index of MP3 files and addresses of participants Participants computer Local MP3 Files 3.Address of Participant with the target file

15 peer-to-peer and agent-based computing 15 A case study: Napster (Contd) How it works: Napsters Computer Participants computer Local MP3 Files Participants computer Local MP3 Files Index of MP3 files and addresses of participants Participants computer Local MP3 Files 4.Send a request to transfer target file

16 peer-to-peer and agent-based computing 16 A case study: Napster (Contd) How it works: Napsters Computer Participants computer Local MP3 Files Participants computer Local MP3 Files Index of MP3 files and addresses of participants Participants computer Local MP3 Files 5.Transfer target file

17 peer-to-peer and agent-based computing 17 A case study: Napster (Contd) File download directly between members computers, bypassing the central computer Central computer necessary for initial contact, though. Over 36 million people joined Napster Limitation: only music files Legal issues concerning copyrighted material being freely distributed: –Napster never stored any MP3 files! –It provided means for people to exchange such files, though…

18 peer-to-peer and agent-based computing 18 P2P applications Three (3) main classes of P2P applications have emerged: –Parallelisable –Content and file management –Collaborative

19 peer-to-peer and agent-based computing 19 P2P parallelisable applications Large task is split into subtasks which are performed by peers. Principle: –Idle time of computers can be used to solve complex problems. In some cases, same task is performed by different peers using different parameters Examples: – (Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence) –Intels Philanthropic Peer-to-Peer Program (Progress thru Processors)

20 peer-to-peer and agent-based computing 20 P2P content & file management Storage and retrieval of information on/from peers Peers can search for and download files that other peers have made available Current systems rely on users to –Choose which peer to download file from –Retry if download fails Examples: –Napster (www.napster.com) –Gnutella (www.gnutella.com)

21 peer-to-peer and agent-based computing 21 P2P collaborative applications Allow users to collaborate in real-time Do not rely on central servers to collect and relay information Examples: –Instant messaging (ICQ, AOL, MSN, Yahoo!) –Co-authoring tools (Distributed Powerpoint) –Massive Multiplayer Online Games (MMOG)

22 peer-to-peer and agent-based computing 22 P2P: target environments Target environments: –Internet, intranets and ad-hoc networks Most frequently: –Personal computers connected to the Internet New trend: –P2P for ad-hoc networks of handheld devices

23 peer-to-peer and agent-based computing 23 P2P markets Three main markets: –Consumer –Enterprise –Public Consumer: –Content and file sharing –Instant messaging –Games Enterprise: –B2B –Finances –Entertainment (e.g. VOD) Public: –Information sharing –Education

24 peer-to-peer and agent-based computing 24 P2P: an informal architecture P2P –is not syndicated, –hence there is not one unique architecture

25 peer-to-peer and agent-based computing 25 P2P: an informal architecture One possible architecture is: communicationdiscoverysecurity resource aggregation reliabilityschedulingmeta-datamessagingmanagementtoolsapplicationsservices locating and routing Application-specific Layer Class-specific Layer Robustness Layer Group management Layer Communication Layer


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