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ITRS Summer Conference 2007 Moscone Center San Francisco, USA 1 DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION Modeling and Simulation ITWG Jürgen Lorenz.

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Presentation on theme: "ITRS Summer Conference 2007 Moscone Center San Francisco, USA 1 DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION Modeling and Simulation ITWG Jürgen Lorenz."— Presentation transcript:

1 ITRS Summer Conference 2007 Moscone Center San Francisco, USA 1 DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION Modeling and Simulation ITWG Jürgen Lorenz – Fraunhofer IISB – chairperson M&S ITWG ITWG/TWG Members H. Jaouen, STM-F * W. Molzer, Infineon * B. Huizing, NXP* J. Lorenz, Fraunhofer IISB * + 9 further TWG members * * : supported by EC User Group SUGERT S. Sato, Fujitsu T. Kunikiyo, RENESAS S. Ogata, ULVAC Japanese TWG 11 industrial + 3 academic members W. Trybula, Trybula Foundation V. Singh, INTEL R. Gafiteanu, MENTOR F. Schellenberg, MENTOR + 6 further TWG members T.C. Lu, Macronix C.S. Yeh, UMC

2 ITRS Summer Conference 2007 Moscone Center San Francisco, USA 2 DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION Equipment related Equipment/Feature scale Modeling Lithography Modeling Feature scale Front End Process Modeling Device Modeling Interconnects and Integrated Passives Modeling IC-scale Circuit Elements Modeling Package Simulation Materials Modeling Numerical Methods TCAD for Design, Manufacturing and Yield 2007 Modeling & Simulation SCOPE & SCALES Modeling Overall Goal Support technology development and optimization Reduce development times and costs

3 ITRS Summer Conference 2007 Moscone Center San Francisco, USA 3 DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION Key Messages (I) Mission of Modeling and Simulation as cross-cut topic: Support areas covered by other (especially focus) ITWGs In-depth analysis of M&S needs of other ITWGs performed, based on documents + inter-ITWG discussions Strong links with ALL ITWGs – see also crosscut texts in upcoming 2007 ITRS Modeling and simulation provides an embodiment of knowledge and understanding. It is a tool for technology/device development and optimization and also for training/education Technology modeling and simulation is one of a few enabling methods that can reduce development times and costs: 2005 cost reduction assessment resulted in 40% for 2007 (when simulation is used efficiently) - figure being updated in 2007

4 ITRS Summer Conference 2007 Moscone Center San Francisco, USA 4 DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION Key Messages (II) Art of modeling: - Combine dedicated experiments & theory to extract physical mechanisms & parameters - Find appropriate trade-off between detailed physical simulation (CPU and memory costly) and simplified but physically appropriate approaches Accurate experimental characterization methods are essential Reliable experimental reference data required on all levels – profiles, electrical data, ….. – must partly be provided e.g. by device makers! Further growing importance of atomistic/materials/hierarchical/multilevel simulation - appropriate treatment of nanostructures Ongoing invitation for extended participation esp. from Korea and Taiwan - also include suppliers (equipment and software)

5 ITRS Summer Conference 2007 Moscone Center San Francisco, USA 5 DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION Example for Success Cases Improvement of PMOS performance with two-step recessed SiGe-S/D (Toshiba – ESSDERC 2006) Cross-sectional TEM of optimized two- step recessed SiGe-S/D pMOSFET 3D stress simulation Dependence of channel strain on pMOSFET structure Improvement of pMOS performance with two-step recessed SiGe-S/D: V th roll- off ( Vth = V th – V g = 300 nm); I on – I off characteristics (|V dd | = 0.9 V)

6 ITRS Summer Conference 2007 Moscone Center San Francisco, USA 6 DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION Example for Success Cases NOR Flash Reliability: Contact-Gate Leakage Requirements met during simulation: Accurate 3D description of memory cell morphology Leakage through non-planar multi-layer dielectric stack 3D non-local tunneling model to account for local curvature radii Floating Gate charging during measurement Main results: Sound interpretation of physical mechanisms involved Lateral trap-assisted conduction dominates for aggressively scaled contact-gate distance Guidelines for reliable scaling of NOR cell Source: STMicroelectronics Agrate (IRPS 2007)

7 ITRS Summer Conference 2007 Moscone Center San Francisco, USA 7 DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION Example for Success Cases Self Heating Simulation of Multi-Gate FETs Requirements Simulations consistent with R th measurements. Describe transient behavior. Results Width dependence of R th of simple model is sufficient. BOX thickness is major factor. Time behavior is more complicated than simple model. A reasonable transient model which covers all required timescales is possible. Source: Infineon Technologies ESSDERC 2006

8 ITRS Summer Conference 2007 Moscone Center San Francisco, USA 8 DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION Basic Approach and Focus of 2007 Work 1)Detailed cross-cuts worked out since 2003 – regularly updated together with other ITWGs 2)Detailed revision of M&S tables based on state-of-the-art & cross-cut requirements – several details traced but shifted to text 3)2007 rewrite of text, based on changes of cross-cuts and tables, and state-of-the-art Involve subchapter editing teams which should consist of representatives from each region (achieved: about 3 regions per subchapter involved) 4)No changes in chapter structure in 2007

9 ITRS Summer Conference 2007 Moscone Center San Francisco, USA 9 DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION Main Changes in 2007 Challenges Short-term challenges: 2006 challenge High-frequency device and circuit modeling for 5–100 GHz applications replaced by new challenge Circuit element and system modeling for high frequency (up to 160 GHz) applications Short-term lithography simulation challenge now limited to optical and EUV, no other NGL Items from 2006 long-term challenge Prediction of dispersion of circuit parameters pulled in, revised, and distributed into short-term challenges onIntegrated modeling of equipment, materials, feature scale processes and influences on devices, including variability and Ultimate nanoscale device simulation capability Long-term challenges: Instead of old challenge Prediction of dispersion of circuit parameters now new challenge NGL simulation General: Several changes in the details of the issues (blue on viewfoils)

10 ITRS Summer Conference 2007 Moscone Center San Francisco, USA 10 DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION 2007 Short-Term Difficult Challenges Lithography Simulation including EUV Needs Experimental verification and simulation of ultra-high NA vector models, including polarization effects from the mask and the imaging system Models and experimental verification of non-optical immersion lithography effects (e.g. topography and change of refractive index distribution) Simulation of multiple exposure/patterning Multi-generation lithography system models Simulation of defect influences / defect printing Optical simulation of resolution enhancement techniques including combined mask/source optimization (OPC, PSM) and including extensions for inverse lithography Models that bridge requirements of OPC (speed) and process development (predictive) including EMF effects and ultra-high NA effects (oblique illumination) Predictive resist models (e.g. mesoscale models) incl. line- edge roughness, etch resistance, adhesion, mechanical stability, and time-dependent effects in multiple exposure Resist model parameter calibration methodology (including kinetic and transport parameters) Simulation of high NA effects in EUV lithography Simulation of e-beam mask making Simulation of direct self-assembly of sublitho patterns Modeling lifetime effects of equipment and masks Example (Fraunhofer IISB): Near-field intensity simulated on 1.9 Ghz laptop for large area with waveguide method and decomposition technique EUV: Several absorbers on typical multilayer, area (100 λ) 2, simulation time 20 sec. 193 nm optical: Several absorbers on CoG mask, area (52 λ) 2 =10µm · 10µm, simulation time 17 min.

11 ITRS Summer Conference 2007 Moscone Center San Francisco, USA 11 DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION 2007 Short-Term Difficult Challenges Front-End Process Modeling for Nanometer Structures Needs Diffusion/activation/damage/stress models and parameters incl. SPER and millisecond processes in Si-based substrate, that is, Si, SiGe:C, Ge, SOI, epilayers and ultra-thin body devices, taking into account eventual anisotropy in thin layers Modeling of epitaxially grown layers: Shape, morphology, stress Modeling of stress memorization (SMT) during process sequences Characterization tools/methodologies for ultra- shallow geometries/junctions, 2D low dopant level, and stress Modeling hierarchy from atomistic to continuum for dopants and defects in bulk and at interfaces Efficient and robust 3D meshing for moving boundaries Front-end processing impact on reliability Source: P. Pichler et al. (FhG-IISB), Defect and Diffusion Forum , 510 (2006)

12 ITRS Summer Conference 2007 Moscone Center San Francisco, USA 12 DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION 2007 Short-Term Difficult Challenges Integrated Modeling of Equipment, Materials, Feature Scale Processes and Influences on Devices Needs Fundamental physical data ( e.g. rate constants, cross sections, surface chemistry for ULK, photoresists and high-k metal gate); reaction mechanisms (reaction paths and (by-)products, rates...), and simplified but physical models for complex chemistry and plasma reaction Linked equipment/feature scale models (including high-k metal gate integration, damage prediction) Removal processes: CMP, etch, electrochemical polishing (ECP) (full wafer and chip level, pattern dependent effects) Deposition processes: MOCVD, PECVD and ALD, electroplating and electroless deposition modeling Efficient extraction of impact of equipment- and/or process induced variations on devices and circuits, using process and device simulation Simulated across- wafer variation of feature profile for a sputter-deposited barrier. (From Fraunhofer IISB)

13 ITRS Summer Conference 2007 Moscone Center San Francisco, USA 13 DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION 2007 Short-Term Difficult Challenges Ultimate Nanoscale Device Simulation Capability Needs Methods, models and algorithms that contribute to prediction of CMOS limits General, accurate, computationally efficient and robust quantum based simulators incl. fundamental parameters linked to electronic band structure and phonon spectra Models and analysis to enable design and evaluation of devices and architectures beyond traditional planar CMOS Models (incl. material models) to investigate new memory devices like MRAM, PRAM, etc Gate stack models for ultra-thin dielectrics Models for device impact of statistical fluctuations in structures and dopant distributions Efficient device simulation models for statistical fluctuations of structure and dopant variations and efficient use of numerical device simulation to assess the impact of variations statistics on statistics of device performance. Physical models for novel materials, e.g. high-k stacks, Ge and compound III/V channels ….: Morphology, band structure, defects/traps, …. Reliability modeling for ultimate CMOS Physical models for stress induced device performance courtesy Infineon / TU Munich drain source courtesy Infineon / TU Munich Source: Infineon Technologies AG ESSDERC 2006

14 ITRS Summer Conference 2007 Moscone Center San Francisco, USA 14 DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION 2007 Short-Term Difficult Challenges Thermal-Mechanical-Electrical Modeling for Interconnects and Packaging Needs Model thermal-mechanical, thermo- dynamic and electronic properties of low-k, high-k and conductors for efficient on-chip and off-chip incl. SIP layout and power management, and the impact of processing on these properties especially for interfaces and films under 1 micron Model effects which influence reliability of packages and interconnects incl. 3D integration (e.g. stress voiding, electro- migration, fracture, piezoelectric effects) Models to predict adhesion on interconnect-relavant interfaces Simulation of adhesion and fracture toughness characteristics for packaging and die interfaces Models for electron transport in ultra fine patterned interconnects Temperature distribution in an interconnect structure courtesy TU Vienna / IST project MULSIC

15 ITRS Summer Conference 2007 Moscone Center San Francisco, USA 15 DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION Needs Supporting heterogeneous integration (SoC+SiP) by enhancing CAD-tools to simulate mutual interactions of building blocks, interconnect, dies and package: - possibly consisting of different technologies, - covering and combining different modelling and simulation levels as well as different simulation domains Scalable active component circuit models including non-quasi- static effects, substrate noise, high-frequency and 1/f noise, temperature and stress layout dependence and parasitic coupling Scalable passive component models for compact circuit simulation, including interconnect, transmission lines, RF MEMS switches, … Physical circuit element models for III/V devices Computer-efficient inclusion of variability including its statistics (including correlations) before process freeze into circuit modeling, treating local and global variations consistently Efficient building block/circuit-level assessment using process/device/circuit simulation, including process variations 2007 Short-term Difficult Challenges Circuit Element and System Modeling for High Frequency (up to 160 Ghz) Applications (From Philips)

16 ITRS Summer Conference 2007 Moscone Center San Francisco, USA 16 DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION 2007 Difficult Challenges < 22 nm One challenge from 2005/6 distributed into short-term One new challenge added

17 ITRS Summer Conference 2007 Moscone Center San Francisco, USA 17 DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION 2007 Requirement Tables Only some general remarks here: Continued trend to delay items: Necessary research could not be done due to lack of resources (research funding) Many changes in technical details included Table continues to contain some items in zebra colour - according to ITRS guidelines: Limitations of available solutions will not delay the start of production. In some cases, work-arounds will be initially employed. Subsequent improvement is expected to close any gaps for production performance in areas such as process control, yield, and productivity. This means for simulation: It can be used, but with more calibration, larger CPU time/memory, less generality than in the end required... Red here means Solution not known, but this does not stop manufacturing

18 ITRS Summer Conference 2007 Moscone Center San Francisco, USA 18 DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION 2007 Short-Term Requirements

19 ITRS Summer Conference 2007 Moscone Center San Francisco, USA 19 DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION 2007 Short-Term Requirements

20 ITRS Summer Conference 2007 Moscone Center San Francisco, USA 20 DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION More details given in tables & ITRS text Thank you


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