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. 7-1 Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Claiborne & Drewery, Human Development Chapter 7 Adolescence.

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Presentation on theme: ". 7-1 Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Claiborne & Drewery, Human Development Chapter 7 Adolescence."— Presentation transcript:

1 . 7-1 Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Claiborne & Drewery, Human Development Chapter 7 Adolescence

2 . Adolescence as a construction Adolescence is the product of a complex, constructed ecology –It varies with culture, place and historical time, and –National economic development Place offers a physical and social environment –Cultural expectations –Relationships with elders Local traditions, laws, community are resources –May also be restrictive Age is an indicator rather than a determinant Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Claiborne & Drewery, Human Development 7-2

3 . Biological approach Puberty –Onset average two years earlier for girls than boys –May be occurring somewhat earlier than previously –Onset is related to body weight Puberty involves –Development of reproductive system to maturity –Development of skeletal system –All controlled by endocrine system (hormones) Growth in skeletal system proceeds unevenly –Different parts of the body develop at different rates –The order of development seems to be constant Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Claiborne & Drewery, Human Development 7-3

4 . A socio-cultural approach Adolescence became differentiated as a life stage in relation to work force requirements –Family livelihoods count(ed) on childrens work –Industrialisation changed the way work was organised –It became illegal to employ young children –Training was needed as preparation for work –Introduction of compulsory education Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Claiborne & Drewery, Human Development 7-4

5 . A rite of passage Many cultures celebrate the transition from child to adult, based on the onset of puberty In New Zealand culture, markers of adult status include –Drivers licence –Paying full price for entry to public events –21 st birthday party (or is it 18, or 20?) Transition suggests a period of time rather than an event or marker of changed status In New Zealand culture, there is no clear moment of passage Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Claiborne & Drewery, Human Development 7-5

6 . Coping with a changing body Bodily outcomes at adolescence are not predictable New shape may have social implications –Tall and thin people may develop later –Shorter and more muscular people may develop earlier Preoccupation with body image is not surprising –New body features for young person –Social preoccupation with fatness and thinness Raises questions about Who am I? Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Claiborne & Drewery, Human Development 7-6

7 . Theory of identity formation James Marcia: Identity Status matrix Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Claiborne & Drewery, Human Development 7-7

8 . Psychosocial tasks at adolescence Erik Eriksons psychosocial task: –Identity vs. role confusion Anna Freud: the absence of storm and stress at this time is itself abnormal –Is this claim justified? What do these ideas suggest about how to support adolescents? Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Claiborne & Drewery, Human Development 7-8

9 . Questions for consideration: Is identity formed in adolescence fixed for life? Do you have only one identity? What is the value of identity status? Do you believe that identity is a product of your biological make-up? To what extent is your identity determined? Is identity an internal psychological quality? To what extent is identity conferred externally by your culture? Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Claiborne & Drewery, Human Development 7-9

10 . Development of minority identity I: Little reflection on the issue II: Questioning of ones place in society III: Period of investigation of roots IV: Resistance to the dominant culture V: Redefinition: strong identification with minority VI: Pride in ones minority identity, and acceptance of difference in others (See Phinney, 1989; Jackson, 1975) This progression is a composite of ideas about the formation of a minority identity. Does it reflect YOUR experience? Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Claiborne & Drewery, Human Development 7-10

11 . Development of adult gender identity Individualisation and autonomy are gendered –Males tend to have more possibilities for both Autonomy is often thought to be a marker of adult status In households where income is shared, both lose some autonomy –Commitment to others tends to limit autonomy Some theorists have argued that female trajectories are different –Delaying identity foreclosure until after commitments to life partner and children –Paid work status may be seen as less central to identity Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Claiborne & Drewery, Human Development 7-11

12 . Cognitive development at adolescence Formal operations (Piaget) –The ability to think hypothetically –Logical operations –Imagining the future Imaginary audience (Elkind) –Egocentrism –Based on negative perceptions of risk-taking at adolescence Research by Chapin et al (2005) suggests that –Adolescents are able to take the perspective of others –Young people who have experienced violence do not underestimate risk –Young people are still learning about risk Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Claiborne & Drewery, Human Development 7-12

13 . Brain development at adolescence Recent medical research has drawn attention to the development of the brain at adolescence –Some suggest that adolescent brains are not capable of responsible decision-making Based on the finding that adolescents take longer to weigh up the risk of doing something risky –This is a problematic over-generalisation –Changes in this function are to be expected as a result of experience and learning –Changes in ways of thinking about risk may be ongoing through adulthood See also Payne (2010, pp ). Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Claiborne & Drewery, Human Development 7-13

14 . Moral development (see p. 195) Kohlbergs theory has six stages, and is based on Piagets ideas about cognitive development. Level Two: Conventional morality –Stage Three: Nice girl, good boy, wants approval –Stage Four: We behave well because its the law Level Three: Principled morality –Stage Five: Social contract orientation - understanding the need for common laws –Stage Six: Universal ethical principles - self-chosen ethical principles –Adolescents experiment with these positions e.g. vegetarianism; political party membership Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Claiborne & Drewery, Human Development 7-14


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