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Presentation on theme: "Adolescence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Adolescence

2 What is Adolescence? What time frame?
What constitutes the end of adolescence? What are the most significant aspects or events in adolescence?

3 When Does Adolescence begin and end?
Perspective When adolescence begins When adolescence ends Biological Onset of puberty Becoming capable of sexual reproduction Emotional Beginning of detachment from parents Attainment of separate sense of identity Cognitive Emergence of more advanced reasoning abilities Consolidation of advanced reasoning abilities Interpersonal Beginning of shift in interest from parental to peer relations Development of capacity for intimacy with peers Social Beginning of training for adult work, family, and citizen roles Full attainment of adult status and privileges Educational Entrance into junior high school Completion of formal schooling Legal Attainment of juvenile status Attainment of majority status Chronological Attainment of designated age of adolescence (e.g., 10 years) Attainment of designated age of adulthood (e.g., 21 years) Cultural Entrance into period of training for ceremonial rite of passage Completion of ceremonial rite of passage

4 Stages of Adolescence Early Adolescence (10-13 years)
Middle Adolescence (14-17 years) Late Adolescence (18-21 years)

5 Some of the transitions we will be studying
Biological – how changes influence psychological development Cognitive-how thought processes change and become more mature Social-how adolescents change in their friendships and relationships at home

6 Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model

7 Theoretical perspectives on how adolescents ‘evolve’
Biosocial theories Hall’s theory of recapitulation Organismic theories Freudian Theory Eriksonian Theory Piagetian Theory Learning theories Behaviorism Social Learning theories Sociological theories Adolescent marginality Intergenerational conflict Historical and Anthropological Theories Adolescence as an Invention Anthropological perspectives

8 Biosocial Theories Hall’s Theory of Recapitulation
Adolescence is when a person becomes civilized Says adolescence is a period of ‘storm and stress’ Said hormonal changes were not productive for teen or those around them – upheaval

9 Organismic theories (combination of biological and contextual theories)
1. Freudian theory Child comes out of the latency period into the genital period Oedipal complex revived but different Saw adolescence as a period of upheaval

10 Organismic theories 2. Eriksonian theories Identity vs. role confusion
Changes in adolescence due to puberty and society’s demands on an adolescence

11 Organismic theories 3. Piagetian theory Formal operational thought
Abstract, hypothetical thinking Biological changes (esp in brain) affect cognitive abilities

12 Learning theories 1. Behaviorism John Watson Operant conditioning
Reinforcements Punishments

13 Learning theories 2. Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura
Interested in the ways in that adolescents learn to behave Through modeling Observational learning

14 Sociological Theories
1. Adolescent marginality Treated like ‘second-class’ citizens Aren’t given meaningful job opportunities Need to spend more time with adults in order to better transition to adulthood

15 Socological Theories 2. Intergenerational conflict
Tension between adults and adolescents results from different attitudes and beliefs Some see adolescents as being hostile to the ‘culture’ of adults

16 Historical and Anthropological Theories
1. Adolescence as an invention Compulsory education created the concept of adolescence Prior to this, teen girls got married/had children and boys went to work

17 Historical and Anthropological Theories
2. Anthropological perspectives Says in ‘continuous’ societies, the transition from adolescence to adulthood is smooth In ‘discontinuous’ societies, the transition to adulthood is abrupt – harder to deal with

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