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Adolesence HBSE II – Session 6. Adolescence – Physical Changes Early:11-14 years Middle:15-18 years Late:18-21 years Adolescence has been described as.

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Presentation on theme: "Adolesence HBSE II – Session 6. Adolescence – Physical Changes Early:11-14 years Middle:15-18 years Late:18-21 years Adolescence has been described as."— Presentation transcript:

1 Adolesence HBSE II – Session 6

2 Adolescence – Physical Changes Early:11-14 years Middle:15-18 years Late:18-21 years Adolescence has been described as a socially constructed age; it has a universal cultural context – the transition from childhood to adulthood. The one we recognize now in the western industrialized world was created in the late 19 th century: 1) extended formal schooling; 2) prolonged economic dependency

3 Adolescence – Physical Changes Puberty: Physical growth Secondary sex characteristics Reproductive capacity Menarche First menstruation Average age of onset: 12-15 years; varies significantly across global comparisons Does not indicate fertility – may occur much later – pelvic bones of average female cannot sustain a normal pregnancy until about 16-17 years of age

4 Adolescence - Psychological Recapitulation of infancy (struggle to regain mastery; individuate; preoccupation with the present) – Freud, Mahler et al Identity formation: Identity vs. role diffusion (Erikson); resolve identities in both the individual and social spheres (who am I? Who do people think I am?) Disorders of the self: vulnerable to low self- esteem, lack of goals, immobilization or dangerous acting out and risk-taking behaviors

5 Adolescence - Sexuality Sexual identity development: cultural context for sexual experimentation, role play Dominant heterosexual culture demands conformity – how does someone develop an alternative sexual identity? Coming out – stage linear theory: 1) self-labeling, disclosure to others, public disclosure Gender differences in sexual identity development Racial/ethnic differences in non-heterosexual identity development Little research on transgender identity development

6 Adolescence – Racial/ethnic Identity Development Socio-cultural context Stage theory: Phinney Unexamined ethnic identity – lack of self-awareness; minimal conflict Ethnic identity search – period of exploration, may be discomfort because of conflicts, oppositional identity achieved ethnic identity – positive attitude towards ones own identity, sense of belonging

7 Adolescence – Changing Significance of Attachment Desire for independence, peer group, identity, interest in sexuality Parents and other authority figures are less significant Parental role shifts Developmental differences in life stage between parents and adolescents Separation-individuation process requires parents to set goals for independence and autonomy; parents can provide a secure base; adolescents move away from being cared for to taking on caretaking roles themselves

8 Adolescence - Challenges Teen pregnancy Teen pregnancy rates in the US have declined steadily: 117 per 1000 in 1990 to 67 per 1000 in 2010 (37% decline) 86% is attributable to use of contraception 59% of teen pregnancies end in birth; 30% in abortion International Comparison: Canada (27 per 1000) Sweden (31 per 1000) What factors are involved in teen pregnancy?


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