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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 12 Emotional and Social Development in Adolescence This multimedia product and.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 12 Emotional and Social Development in Adolescence This multimedia product and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 12 Emotional and Social Development in Adolescence This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Eriksons Theory: Identity vs. Identity Confusion Identity Defining who you are, what you value and direction in life. Commitments to vocation, personal relationships, sexual orientation, ethnic group, ideals. Resolution of identity crisis or exploration Identity Confusion Lack of direction and definition of self. Restricted exploration in adolescence Earlier psychosocial conflicts not resolved Society restricts choices Unprepared for stages of adulthood

3 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Self-Understanding in Adolescence Self-Concept Unify separate traits into larger, abstract ones May describe contradictory traits; social situations Gradually combine traits into organized system Self-Esteem Continues to differentiate Generally rises Individual differences

4 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Identity Statuses Level of Exploration Level of Commitment HighLow High Identity Achievement Moratorium Low Identity Foreclosure Identity Diffusion

5 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Factors that Affect Identity Development Personality Flexible, open-minded Child-rearing practices Authoritative, attached Peers, friends Schools Communities Larger context Culture Historical time period

6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Piagets Theory of Moral Development Heteronomous Morality View rules as handed down by authorities, permanent, unchangeable, require strict obedience. Judge wrongness by outcomes, not intentions Autonomous Morality Rules as socially- agreed on, changeable Standard of ideal reciprocity Judge on outcomes and intentions

7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Kohlbergs Stages of Moral Development Preconventional Level Stage 1: Punishment and Obedience Stage 2: Instrumental Purpose Conventional Level Stage 3: Good boy-good girl (Morality of interpersonal cooperation) Stage 4: Social Order Maintaining Postconventional or Principled Level Stage 5: Social Contract Stage 6 Universal Ethical Principle

8 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Sex Differences in Moral Reasoning? Kohlberg: Rights and justice orientation Gilligan: Caring for others orientation Ethic of Care Both sexes use both orientations, but females may stress care more Greater experience as caregivers

9 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Environmental Influences on Moral Reasoning Child-Rearing Practices Caring, supportive Discuss moral concerns Schooling Peer Interactions Culture

10 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Gender Intensification in Adolescence Increased gender stereotyping of attitudes and behavior Biological, social, cognitive factors More in early adolescence, declines mid to late adolescence

11 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Parent-Child Relationships in Adolescence Autonomy De-idealize parents Shift from parents to selves and peers for guidance Authoritative Parenting Balances autonomy with monitoring as needed Extra challenging during adolescence

12 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Friendships in Adolescence Fewer best friends More intimacy, loyalty Closeness, trust, Self-disclosure - get to know friends personality Friends are similar or get more similar Identity status, aspirations, politics, deviant behavior Gender differences Girls – emotional closeness Boys – activities, status

13 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Self-Disclosure in Relationships

14 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Benefits of Adolescent Friendships Opportunities to explore self Form deep understanding of another Foundation for future intimate relationships Help deal with life stress Can improve attitude and school involvement

15 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Cliques and Crowds Clique Small group – 5–7 Good friends Identified by interests, social status popular and unpopular Crowd Larger – several cliques Membership based on reputation, stereotype

16 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Dating in Adolescence Emerges from mixed-sex cliques Cliques hang out Several couples form and do things together Individual couples Changes throughout adolescence Early: recreation, group activities, shallow intimacy Gradually look for more intimacy Too early dating related to legal, academic problems

17 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Peer Conformity Pressures to conform to: Dress, grooming, social activities Proadult behavior Misconduct Rises in early adolescence, but low overall More conformity in early adolescence Authoritative parenting helps resist pressures

18 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Depression in Adolescence Most common psychological problem of adolescence – 15–20% Twice as many girls as boys Early-maturing girls Factors influencing depression: Genetics Child-rearing practices Learned helplessness

19 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Adolescent Suicide A leading cause of youth death 4-5 times as many boys as girls Girls more attempts Greatest risk: White males; African American males; gay, lesbian, bisexual Highly intelligent & socially withdrawn, or antisocial youth at risk

20 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Two Routes to Adolescent Delinquency Early-Onset – behavior begins in middle childhood Biological risk factors and child-rearing practices combine Late-Onset – behavior begins around puberty Peer influences

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