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Development Through the Lifespan

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1 Development Through the Lifespan
Chapter 12 Emotional and Social Development in Adolescence This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 Erikson’s Theory: Identity vs. Identity Confusion
Defining who you are, what you value and direction in life. Commitments to vocation, personal relationships, sexual orientation, ethnic group, ideals. Resolution of “identity crisis” or exploration Identity Confusion Lack of direction and definition of self. Restricted exploration in adolescence Earlier psychosocial conflicts not resolved Society restricts choices Unprepared for stages of adulthood

3 Self-Understanding in Adolescence
Self-Concept Unify separate traits into larger, abstract ones May describe contradictory traits; social situations Gradually combine traits into organized system Self-Esteem Continues to differentiate Generally rises Individual differences

4 Identity Statuses Level of Exploration Level of Commitment High Low
Identity Achievement Moratorium Identity Foreclosure Identity Diffusion

5 Factors that Affect Identity Development
Personality Flexible, open-minded Child-rearing practices Authoritative, attached Peers, friends Schools Communities Larger context Culture Historical time period

6 Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development
Heteronomous Morality View rules as handed down by authorities, permanent, unchangeable, require strict obedience. Judge wrongness by outcomes, not intentions Autonomous Morality Rules as socially-agreed on, changeable Standard of ideal reciprocity Judge on outcomes and intentions

7 Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development
Preconventional Level Stage 1: Punishment and Obedience Stage 2: Instrumental Purpose Conventional Level Stage 3: “Good boy-good girl” (Morality of interpersonal cooperation) Stage 4: Social Order Maintaining Postconventional or Principled Level Stage 5: Social Contract Stage 6 Universal Ethical Principle

8 Sex Differences in Moral Reasoning?
Kohlberg: Rights and justice orientation Gilligan: Caring for others orientation Ethic of Care Both sexes use both orientations, but females may stress care more Greater experience as caregivers

9 Environmental Influences on Moral Reasoning
Child-Rearing Practices Caring, supportive Discuss moral concerns Schooling Peer Interactions Culture

10 Gender Intensification in Adolescence
Increased gender stereotyping of attitudes and behavior Biological, social, cognitive factors More in early adolescence, declines mid to late adolescence

11 Parent-Child Relationships in Adolescence
Autonomy De-idealize parents Shift from parents to selves and peers for guidance Authoritative Parenting Balances autonomy with monitoring as needed Extra challenging during adolescence

12 Friendships in Adolescence
Fewer “best friends” More intimacy, loyalty Closeness, trust, Self-disclosure - get to know friend’s personality Friends are similar or get more similar Identity status, aspirations, politics, deviant behavior Gender differences Girls – emotional closeness Boys – activities, status

13 Self-Disclosure in Relationships

14 Benefits of Adolescent Friendships
Opportunities to explore self Form deep understanding of another Foundation for future intimate relationships Help deal with life stress Can improve attitude and school involvement

15 Cliques and Crowds Clique Crowd Small group – 5–7 Good friends
Identified by interests, social status “popular” and “unpopular” Crowd Larger – several cliques Membership based on reputation, stereotype

16 Dating in Adolescence Emerges from mixed-sex cliques
Cliques hang out Several couples form and do things together Individual couples Changes throughout adolescence Early: recreation, group activities, shallow intimacy Gradually look for more intimacy Too early dating related to legal, academic problems

17 Peer Conformity Pressures to conform to:
Dress, grooming, social activities Proadult behavior Misconduct Rises in early adolescence, but low overall More conformity in early adolescence Authoritative parenting helps resist pressures

18 Depression in Adolescence
Most common psychological problem of adolescence – 15–20% Twice as many girls as boys Early-maturing girls Factors influencing depression: Genetics Child-rearing practices Learned helplessness

19 Adolescent Suicide A leading cause of youth death
4-5 times as many boys as girls Girls more attempts Greatest risk: White males; African American males; gay, lesbian, bisexual Highly intelligent & socially withdrawn, or antisocial youth at risk

20 Two Routes to Adolescent Delinquency
Early-Onset – behavior begins in middle childhood Biological risk factors and child-rearing practices combine Late-Onset – behavior begins around puberty Peer influences

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