2Humans have been influencing the genetics of organisms since the beginning of agriculture approximately 12,000 years ago.Selective breeding: Choosing organisms with the best traits to produce the next generation.2
3Inbreeding: type of selective breeding in which organisms that are closely related are mated, in order to maintain desired traits.Inbreeding3
4Hybridization: type of selective breeding that mates closely related subspecies to blend desired traits, offspring are often infertile.Hybridization4
5In the last century, humans developed a process called genetic engineering. Genetic engineering changes an organism’s DNA to give the organism new traits.5
6Restriction enzymes cut DNA. Restriction enzymes act as “molecular scissors.”come from various types of bacteriaallow scientists to more easily study and manipulate genescut DNA at a specific nucleotide sequence called a restriction site
7Different restriction enzymes cut DNA in different ways. each enzyme has a different restriction site
8Recombinant DNA Technology Recombinant DNA involves inserting the genes of one organism into the into the DNA of another organism.Bacteria are most commonly used for this type of technology because they are cheap and plentiful to grow.
9How to Make Recombinant DNA: Restriction enzymes are used to find and cut out specific sequences of DNA in both the “new” DNA and the “old” DNA. DNA in bacteria is typically found in a simple ring called a plasmid.Enzymes help bind the donor DNA into the plasmid (each was left with a “sticky end” that bonds to each other.The plasmid is introduced into the bacterial cells, and the bacteria unknowingly replicates the new DNA during reproduction.9
10Transgenic OrganismsA transgenic organism has one or more genes from another organism inserted into its genome.10
11Transgenic OrganismsTransgenic bacteria can be used to produce human proteins.Example: Insulin11
12Transgenic OrganismsTransgenic plants are engineered to be superior to their “normal” relatives. They are called GM (genetically modified).drought resistantpest resistantmodified to make medicines12
13Transgenic OrganismsTransgenic animals are engineered for a number of reasons:larger and healthiermodels for humantreatment for humans13
14Scientists have concerns about some uses of genetic engineering. possible long-term health effects of eating GM foodspossible effects of GM plants on ecosystems and biodiversity14
15PCR uses polymerases to copy DNA segments. PCR makes many copies of a specific DNA sequence in a few hours.target sequence of DNAPCR amplifies DNA samples.PCR is similar to DNA replication.
16PCR is a three-step process. PCR uses four materials.DNA to be copiedDNA polymeraseA, T, C, and G nucleotidestwo primersDNA strandspolymerasenucleotidesprimer 1primer 2
17The three steps of PCR occur in a cycle. heat is used to separate double-stranded DNA moleculesprimers bind to each DNA strand on opposite ends of the segment to be copiedDNA polymerase binds nucleotides together to form new strands of DNADNA strandspolymerasenucleotidesprimer 1primer 2
18Each PCR cycle doubles the number of DNA molecules.
19A clone is a genetically identical copy of a gene or of an organism. CloningA clone is a genetically identical copy of a gene or of an organism.19
21How to Clone Using Nuclear Transfer: The nucleus is removed from a donor egg cell.Nucleus of a cell (can be any body cell) from the animal to be cloned is implanted in the egg and stimulated with electricity.In mammals, if fusion occurs and an embryo forms, the embryo is placed in the womb of a female and if implanted, the embryo will form like a normal baby.21
23Cloning has potential benefits. organs for transplant into humanssave endangered speciesCloning raises concerns.low success rateclones “imperfect” and less healthy than original animaldecreased biodiversity23
24Other Uses of Biotechnology Biotechnology is the use and application of living things and biological processes.DNA fingerprints are a common use of biotechnology.24
25Restriction maps show the lengths of DNA fragments. Gel electrophoresis is used to separate DNA fragments by size.A DNA sample is cut with restriction enzymes.Electrical current pulls DNA fragments through a gel.Smaller fragments move faster and travel farther than larger fragments.Fragments of different sizes appear as bands on the gel.
26A DNA fingerprint is a type of restriction map. DNA fingerprints are based on parts of an individual’s DNA that can by used for identification.based on noncoding regions of DNAnoncoding regions have repeating DNA sequencesnumber of repeats differs between peoplebanding pattern on a gel is a DNA fingerprint
27DNA fingerprinting is used for identification. DNA fingerprinting depends on the probability of a match.Many people have the same number of repeats in a certain region of DNA.The probability that two people share identical numbers of repeats in several locations is very small.(mother) (child 1) (child 2) (father)
28Several regions of DNA are used to make DNA fingerprints. Individual probabilities are multiplied to find the overall probability of two DNA fingerprints randomly matching.,400,0001 chance in 5.4 million peoplex=Several regions of DNA are used to make DNA fingerprints.
29DNA fingerprinting is used in several ways. evidence in criminal casespaternity testsimmigration requestsstudying biodiversitytracking genetically modified crops29
30Biotechnology in Genomics Genomics is the study of genomes.can include the sequencing of the genomecomparisons of genomes within and across speciesthe amount of DNA in an organism is NOT equivalent to how advanced they are!30
31analyzed DNA from a few people The Human Genome Project has sequenced all of the DNA base pairs of human chromosomes.analyzed DNA from a few peoplestill working to identify and map human genes31
32Genetic screening can detect genetic disorders. Genetic screening involves the testing of DNA.determines risk of having or passing on a genetic disorderused to detect specific genes or proteinscan detect some genes related to an increased risk of cancercan detect some genes known to cause genetic disordersDMDN32
33A karyotype is a picture of all chromosomes in a cell. X Y
34Karyotypes can show changes in chromosomes. Nondisjunction: an error in meiosis that results in an extra or a loss of a chromosomedeletion of part of a chromosome or duplication of part of a chromosome
35Gene TherapyGene therapy replaces defective or missing genes, or adds new genes, to treat a disease.35
36Several experimental techniques are used for gene therapy. Viruses-genetically engineered viruses used to “infect” a patient’s cells, by inserting genes into viruses that are used to infect a person’s cells.Immune system-insert gene to stimulate immune system to recognize and attack cancer cellsSuicide genes- insert “suicide” genes into cancer cells that activate a drug to kill the cells; normal cells without the gene are not affected.
37Gene therapy has many technical challenges. inserting gene into correct cellscontrolling gene expressiondetermining effect on other genes37