Presentation on theme: "Biotechnology Technology involving the DNA, genes, and, proteins of different organisms. (Chapter 9) DNA Fingerprinting w/ Gel Electrophoresis Selective."— Presentation transcript:
Biotechnology Technology involving the DNA, genes, and, proteins of different organisms. (Chapter 9) DNA Fingerprinting w/ Gel Electrophoresis Selective Breeding
Biotechnology - Why? Mutations cause “genetic variability” - differences. These differences in DNA between individuals can be used to …. – Engineer more productive crops and animals – Treat/Cure genetic disorders (like cancer) – Identify individuals by their DNA “Fingerprint” – Clone genes (or organisms)
Mutations - Types 1)Point Mutation: -A change in a single nucleotide Ex: Substitution (of one nucleotide for another) Normal Point Mutation
Biotechnology - Types 1) Selective Breeding/Hybridization: – Choosing to breed individual plants or animals with the most desireable traits. Ex: – Dogs breeds: all came from wolves – Corn used to be smaller
Biotechnology - Types 2) Cloning: - making an identical copy of a gene or an entire organism. Ex: Plants, Sheep, and Cats have all successfully been cloned.
Biotechnology - Types 3) Transgenic Organisms: - Plants or animals whose genes have been replaced with genes from another organism. Ex: Bacteria: genes can be added to quickly produce proteins - such as insulin – needed to treat diseases.
Biotechnology - Types 4) Genetic Engineering: - intentionally changing the genes of an organism Ex: Gene Splicing – replacing one gene with another (transgenic crops)
Biotechnology - Types 5) Restriction Enzymes: - These enzymes found in bacteria can cut DNA between certain base sequences creating DNA “fragments” (pieces) Ex: DNA Fingerprinting: the fragments created by Restriction Enzymes can be used to identify individuals.
Biotechnology - Types 6) Gel Electrophoresis: - Process uses electricity to separate DNA pieces in to bands at different distances from an electric source. Ex: Used in DNA Fingerprinting _ + Electric Source Positive Electrode - Attracting electrons Band A Band B