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Roman World Takes Shape Chapter 5 Section 1

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1 Roman World Takes Shape Chapter 5 Section 1
Mr. Marsh Columbus North High School

2 Geography of Rome Rome began as a small city-state in central Italy.
Geography of Italy made unifying Italy as one nation much easier then Greece Very fertile growing areas Central Location in the Mediterranean

3 People of Rome Rome shared the Italian Peninsula with others
Greek colonial city-states covered the southern tip of the peninsula The Etruscans lived north of Rome and at one point in history controlled most of the Peninsula

4 The Roman Republic (509 B.C. – 27 B.C.)
509 B.C., Romans rejected Etruscan king (monarchy) and established a republic. Power rests with the citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders. In Rome, citizenship with voting rights was granted only to free-born male citizens.

5 The Roman Republic (509 B.C. – 27 B.C.)
STRUGGLE FOR POWER: CLASS CONFLICT Patricians- wealthy landowners who held most of the power: inherited power and social status Plebeians- (Plebs) common farmers, artisans and merchants who made up the majority of the population: can vote, but can’t rule Tribunes- elected representatives who protect plebeians’ political rights.

6 The Roman Republic (509 B.C. – 27 B.C.)
A “Balanced” Government Rome elects two consuls– one to lead army, one to direct government Senate- chosen from patricians (Roman upper class), make foreign and domestic policy Popular assemblies elect tribunes, make laws for plebeians (commoners) Dictators- leaders appointed briefly in times of crisis (appt. by consuls and senate)

7 See Chart: Comparing Republican Governments
What similarities do you see in the governments of the Roman Republic and the United States? What do you think is the most significant difference between the Roman Republic and that of the United States today?

8 The Roman Republic (509 B.C. – 27 B.C.)
THE TWELVE TABLES 451 B.C., officials carve Roman laws on twelve tablets and hung in Forum. Laws confirm right of all free citizens to protection of the law Become the basis for later Roman law

9 Religion Roman religion develops out of Greek and Etruscan religions
Rome had Jupiter, Juno, Neptune and Mars Greeks had Zeus, Hera, Poseidon and Aries

10 Greek Gods and Goddesses

11 Roman Gods and Goddesses

12 The Roman Army All citizens were required to serve Army was powerful:
Organization & fighting skill Legion- military unit of 5,000 infantry (foot soldiers) supported by cavalry (horseback)

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