Presentation on theme: "THE ROMAN REPUBLIC UNIT 2 – GREECE AND ROME LECTURE 4."— Presentation transcript:
1 THEROMANREPUBLICUNIT 2 – GREECE AND ROMELECTURE 4
2 Ancient Rome and Early Christianity, 500 B.C.– A.D. 500 CHAPTER 6The Roman RepublicSECTION 1SECTION 2The Roman EmpireSECTION 4The Fall of the Roman EmpireThese are my notes for slide 2SECTION 5Rome and the Roots of Western Civilization
3 OBJECTIVESCORE OBJECTIVE: Analyze the impact of Ancient Rome and how it continues to impact our lives today.Objective 4.1: Explain the main institutions of the Roman Republic.Objective 4.2: Describe the major events, cultural characteristics, and individuals in the Pax Romana empire.Objective 4.3: Summarize and trace the fall of the Roman Empire.Objective 4.4: Describe the legacy and achievements of Roman civilization.THEME: The Roman culture will have a significant impact and influence on many other world cultures.
4 THE ROMAN REPUBLIC CHAPTER 6 SECTION 1 The early Romans establish a republic, which grows powerful and spreads its influence.
5 Rome is the capital of present day Italy. Rome was the capital of the ancient Roman Empire.The Romans were a practical and hard-working people, and her sturdy farmers made good soldiers.Rome was only a small town on the Tiber River when Athens was at the height of its glory.
6 The Romans adopted Hellenistic culture. Rome grew to become a strong city-state at about the time of Alexander the Great.Their gods, arts, and architecture resembled those of the Greeks.
7 THE ORIGINS OF ROME Rome’s Geography The First Romans Site of Rome chosen for its fertile soil and strategic locationLocated on Italian peninsula in center of Mediterranean SeaBuilt on seven hills on Tiber RiverThe myth is that twins sons Romulus and Remus of the god Mars founded the city around 753 B.C.The First RomansLatins, Greeks, and Etruscans compete for control of regionLatins found original settlement of Rome between 1000 and 500 B.C.Etruscans native to northern Italy; influence Roman civilization
8 THE EARLY REPUBLIC Early Rulers Around 600 B.C., Etruscan kings begin to rule RomeKings build Rome’s first temples and public centersRomans overthrow cruel Etruscan king Tarquin in 509 B.C.Romans found a republic—government in which citizens elect leaders
9 PATRICIANS AND PLEBIANS Different groups struggle for power in early Roman RepublicPatricians — wealthy landowning class that holds most of the powerPlebeians — artisans, merchants, and farmers; can vote, can’t ruleTribunes — elected representatives protect plebeians’ political rights
10 ROMAN LAW Twelve Tables In 451 B.C. officials carve Roman laws on twelve tabletsCalled Twelve Tables, they become basis for later Roman lawLaws confirm right of all free citizens to protection of the lawCitizenship is limited to adult male landownersTwelve Tables are hung in the Forum
11 EVOLUTION OF THE ROMAN FORUM History Channel video
12 GOVERNMENT Government Under the Republic Rome elects two consuls — one to lead army, one to direct government (Monarchy)Senate — chosen from Roman upper class; makes foreign, domestic policy (Aristocracy)300 members chosen from upper classDemocratic assemblies elect tribunes, make laws for common people (Democracy)Dictators are leaders appointed briefly in times of crisisOnly for 6 monthsChosen by consul; elected by Senate
13 MILITARY The Roman Army Rome Conquers Italy Rome’s Commercial Network Roman legion — military unit of 5,000 infantry; supported by cavalryArmy is powerful; key factor in Rome’s rise to greatnessRome Conquers ItalyRomans defeat Etruscans in north and Greek city-states in southBy 265 B.C., Rome controls Italian peninsulaConquered peoples treated justly; this enables Rome to growRome’s Commercial NetworkRome establishes large trading networkAccess to Mediterranean Sea provides many trade routesCarthage, powerful city-state in North Africa, soon rivals Rome
15 Punic wars War with Carthage Rome Triumphs Rome and Carthage begin Punic Wars — three wars between 264–146 B.C.Rome defeats Carthage, wins Sicily, in first 23-year warHannibal — Carthaginian general — avenges defeat in Second Punic WarAttacks Italy through Spain and France, doesn’t take RomeRome TriumphsRoman general Scipio defeats Hannibal in 202 B.C.Rome destroys Carthage, enslaves people in last war (149–146 B.C.)
16 Carthage was an ancient city on the coast of North Africa. It was a powerful rival of Rome.From BC, Carthage and the Roman Republic fought three Punic Wars.During the second war, a general from Carthage named Hannibal led a huge army supported by war elephants from Spain through the Alps into Italy, a troop movement considered one of the greatest in history.
17 Hannibal could not be stopped. He was threatening Rome when Roman armies attacked Carthage, forcing Hannibal to return to protect his homeland.Hannibal later poisoned himself rather than become a prisoner of the Romans.
18 Rome settled things permanently with the Third Punic War. In the third and final Punic War, Roman armies burned Carthage to the ground and plowed under the remains.The people of Carthage were sold into slavery.With Carthage out of the way, Rome was free to expand into new territories including Spain, Greece, and Egypt.