Presentation on theme: "12/3 Focus: 12/3 Focus: – The Romans established a new form of government known as a republic – The Romans influenced many of the values and institutions."— Presentation transcript:
12/3 Focus: 12/3 Focus: – The Romans established a new form of government known as a republic – The Romans influenced many of the values and institutions of western civilization. Do Now: Do Now: – Identify the type of government found in the United States
Review What were some of the geographic characteristics associated with the Italian Peninsula?
Review What were some of the geographic advantages of Rome’s location in Italy?
Early History of Rome The Legend of Romulus and Remus – Legend states that the city of Rome was founded by two twins, Romulus and Remus. – Twins were abandoned near the Tiber River and raised by a she- wolf – Romulus kills Remus and starts Rome
Early History of Rome 3 groups that influenced early Rome – Greeks Established colonies in Italy and Sicily Taught Romans how to grow grapes and olives Art, literature, and architecture influenced Romans – Etruscans From northern Italy – Latins First to settle in Rome Gods were influenced by Greeks and Etruscans
The Roman Republic Etruscan kings ruled Rome from 600 B.C. to 509 BC – Roman aristocrats overthrew the last Etruscan king in 509 BC – Establish a republic
The Roman Republic Republic – A form of government in which elected officials govern the state – power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders – Indirect democracy or representative democracy Rome allowed free-born male citizens to participate in elections – Women could not vote
The Roman Republic Patricians – Aristocratic landowners who held most power in Rome Made up 10% of the population – Ran the government and made the laws
Patricians and Plebeians Plebeians – Farmers, artisans, and merchants – Majority in Rome – Were barred from holding most government positions
Patricians and Plebeians Plebeians demanded more rights in Rome from the patricians – Plebeian Council Allowed to elect their own assembly – Tribunes Officials elected to protect the rights of plebeians Could veto laws that were unjust to plebeians
The Twelve Tables of Rome First written code of law in Rome Plebeians demanded laws of Rome be written down – Laws were carved on twelve bronze tablets and displayed in the Roman Forum Established the principle that all free citizens had the right to protection of the law
Roman Government Consuls – 2 consuls elected by the assembly for 1 year – Chief executives and commanded the army
Roman Government Senate – 300 patrician men – Served for life – Controlled finances and foreign relations – Advised consuls
Roman Government Assemblies – Tribal Assembly and Centuriate Assembly – Made laws and elected officials Gaius Gracchus, tribune of the people, presiding over the Plebeian Council
Roman Government In times of crisis, the republic could appoint a dictator to rule Rome. – Dictator a leader who has absolute power – Could only rule for six months – Were chosen by the consul and elected by the Senate Cincinnatus
The Roman Forum The center of life in Rome Marketplace and civic center – Senate met in the forum – Public speeches were given here – Site of many businesses
Closure What is the difference between a republic and a direct democracy? What was the difference between patricians and plebeians? How are the Twelve Tables of Rome and Hammurabi’s Code similar?