4 Origins of RomeRome built on seven rolling hills in the middle of the Apennine peninsula (da boot)Founded by Romulus and Remus – two brothers who were abandoned as children and raised by a wolf!
5 The First Romans 1000-500 B.C.: Three groups inhabit the region: LatinsGreeksEtruscansLatins built the original settlement of Rome atop a hill called Paletine…these guys are considered the first Romans
6 The First Romans - Continued Greeks controlled southern Italy & Sicily. They brought all of Italy into contact with Greek culture.Etruscans controlled the north. They were metalworkers and engineers,a nd gave Rome its alphabet, system of writing, and the arch in building.
7 The Roman Republic Is Born! In 509 B.C., a tyrannical king was driven from power in Rome. The Romans decide that they will never again live under a king.Romans formed a republic – a government in which political power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for leaders. In Rome, citizens included only free-born males.Two groups vied for power: patricians, wealthy landowners, and plebians, the farmers, artisans, and merchants
8 The Republic, Continued Patricians allowed plebians to form their own assembly and elect representatives called tribunes. These tribunes looked after the rights of the plebians.Plebians pushed for the laws to be written down. Patricians didn’t like this because they could no longer take advantage of the plebians.The laws were written on twelve tablets (tables) and hung in the Roman Forum for all to see. They symbolized the idea that all free citizens had the right to protection of law.
9 The Republic - Continued The Roman Republic combined the features of a monarchy with the features of an aristocracy and a democracy…they called it a balanced government.Consuls were responsible for running the government and commanding the army. Limited to a one year term.Dictators were chosen to run things in times of emergency, limited to a six month term.
10 The Senate Aristocratic branch of Rome’s government. Composed of 300 members from upper class of society.Later, plebians were allowed in the senate.Assemblies represented all who were not patricians and helped make laws.
11 The Military Great value was placed on the military. Landowners were forced to serve in the army, and certain public officials were required to serve ten years in the military to attain office!Organized into legions – groups of 5000 soldiers, with cavalry supporting each legion!
12 Roman Dominance In The Region Rome eventually drove out the Greeks and conquered the Etruscans, dominating the Italian peninsula.Rome quickly became a trading state, roaming the Mediterranean for raw materials and manufactured goods like wine and olive oil.Carthage, a city in Africa, became jealous of Rome and was determined to stop Rome’s dominance. Before long, the two went to war.
13 The Punic WarsRome battled Carthage in a long series of wars known as the Punic Wars. ( B.C)Lead by Hannibal, the Carthaginian army attacked Rome from Spain through the alps.With the help of its allies, Rome defeated the Carthaginian army, giving it complete control over the Western Mediterranean Sea.