Presentation on theme: "4/28/08 BR- 1. What are the 3 branches of American Government. 2"— Presentation transcript:
1 4/28/08 BR- 1. What are the 3 branches of American Government. 2 4/28/08 BR- 1. What are the 3 branches of American Government? 2. Can you describe what is different about a patrician and a plebian in ancient Rome?Today: The Roman Republic (Great Grandfather of The American Republics?)
5 Ancient Italy (c. 6th century B.C.) PEOPLE:The Latins-Rome: “The First Romans”The Etruscans-Northern Italy-Urbanized Rome:Building Programs (the Forum)-Influence on Romans:the arch, alphabetThe Greeks-Southern Italy and Sicilyart, architecture, literature, government, engineeringGEOGRAPHY:-Tiber River & Mediterranean Sea-Fertile Soil & Strategic Location
6 Government: Republic Respublica - matters of the public (people)
7 The Roman Republic (509 B.C. – 27 B.C.) 509 B.C., Romans rejected Etruscan king (monarchy) and established a republic.Power rests with the citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders.In Rome, citizenship with voting rights was granted only to free-born male citizens. Voted in blocks called assemblies.
8 The Roman Republic (509 B.C. – 27 B.C.) STRUGGLE FOR POWER: CLASS CONFLICTPatricians- wealthy landowners who held most of the power: inherited power and social statusPlebeians- (Plebs) common farmers, artisans and merchants who made up the majority of the population: can vote, but can’t ruleTribunes- elected representatives who protect plebeians’ political rights. Could not be touched. Was a safeguard against the patricians.
9 The Roman Republic (509 B.C. – 27 B.C.) A “Balanced” GovernmentRome elects two consuls– had power of life and death, could veto acts (except tribunes) one to lead army, one to direct government (consul, proconsul)Senate- chosen from patricians (Roman upper class), make foreign and domestic policy (500 people)Popular assemblies elect tribunes, make laws for plebeians & patricians can veto acts of others.Dictators- leaders appointed briefly in times of crisis (appt. by consuls and senate)
10 Other Officials: Praetor (6)- Law officer and judges Pontifex Maximus (1) - chief of the state religionQuaestor (20) - treasurer and state recordsAedile (20) - oversaw public works (streets, etc) temples and markets and public games - very popular post!Censor - Auditor of the Government and senate, checked finances, works, and morality. Elected every 5 years. (old, honored title)
11 Cursus Honorum - “Course of Honors” This was the path (ladder) most Roman men took to power.It was a series of posts at different ages. You couldnot repeat offices and had to follow the age limits.You wanted to be elected “IN SUO ANNO” - inyour year.Quaestor - 30 yearsAediels - 36 yearsPraetor - 39 yearsConsul - 42 yearsGovernor - Had to have been a consul (governed provinces)Censor (censi means “to count”)- former consul
13 Assignment - Due Tuesday Make a chart of the cursus honorum.Its ok to use the previous page. Include each position AND a description of duties and requirements.
14 The Roman Republic (509 B.C. – 27 B.C.) THE TWELVE TABLES451 B.C., officials carve Roman laws on twelve tablets and hung in Forum.Laws confirm right of all free citizens to protection of the lawBecome the basis for later Roman law
15 The Twelve Tables: Primary Source Review What can we infer about Roman values based on the laws cited in the Twelve Tables?How do the Twelve Tables compare to modern laws in the United States?
16 Why were the Romans able to conquer Italy & the Mediterranean World?
22 Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.) Three Wars between Rome and Carthage 1st Punic War- Rome gains control of Sicily & western Mediterranean Sea.The destruction of Carthage during the Punic Wars. New York Public Library Picture Collection
23 Punic Wars ( B.C.)2nd Punic War- Carthaginian General Hannibal’s “surprise” attack through Spain & France60,000 soldiers and 60 elephantsRomans experience severe losses, but eventually ward off attacks & invade North AfricaThe destruction of Carthage during the Punic Wars. New York Public Library Picture Collection
24 Hannibal's troops crossing the Rhone River on their way to attack northern Italy.
25 Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.) 3rd Punic War- Rome seizes Carthage Scipio- Roman StrategistConquered people sold into slaveryThe destruction of Carthage during the Punic Wars. New York Public Library Picture Collection
26 Why were the Romans able to conquer Italy & the Mediterranean World Why were the Romans able to conquer Italy & the Mediterranean World? (Give a few reasons and explain) Do you think the Roman Republic owed its success more to its form of government, or its army? Why? How does Rome’s rise to power relate to modern efforts to gain power and authority?
27 Forthcoming…How did the struggle for power between patricians and plebeians affect the Roman Republic?How does leadership impact the power and authority of a nation/republic/empire?Julius CaesarAugustusThe Good & Bad EmperorsDiocletian & Constantine