Presentation on theme: "Social and Political Structure of Ancient Rome Ancient Rome Unit Hang in there for 1 week!!!"— Presentation transcript:
Social and Political Structure of Ancient Rome Ancient Rome Unit Hang in there for 1 week!!!
Do Now - Review of Friday How does Rome’s geography give it an advantage? What protects the Roman Empire from the northern invasion? What sea basin is Rome located in the middle of? What civilization does Rome borrow much of their religion from? Who are the mythological founders of Rome?
Do Now - Review of Friday How does Rome’s geography give it an advantage? Peninsula-protected on 3 sides, distance from East Mediterranean Powers What protects the Roman Empire from the north? Alps What sea basin is Rome located in the middle of? Mediterranean What civilization does Rome borrow much of their religion from? Greek Who are the mythological founders of Rome? Romulus & Remus
The Founding of the Roman Republic Etruscans – group from Northern Italy that briefly controlled the peninsula. 509 BC Romans drive out Etruscans to create new Roman state - a Republic. Republic = government structure where some officials chosen by people; prevented individuals from gaining too much power. http://www.bible-history.com/ancient_maps/Rome_Maps/map_Etruscan_Empire_530_BC.gif
Structure of the Roman Republic Patricians Land-owning upper class Descendants of founders of Rome 5-10 % of population; held most power Plebeians Farmers, artisans, merchants Majority of population; very little power Slaves Lowest social class NOT based on race
What rights did each have? Patricians and Plebeians both could vote and make legal contracts. Marriage WAS allowed for these groups, however they could NOT intermarry. http://www.mrdowling.com/images/702p atrician.gif
The Big Dogs - the Roman Senate The Senate Most powerful body of the Republic About 300 members Served for life term and made laws Only patricians could be Senators The Senators Chose two consuls – chief executives Consuls responsible for commanding the armies and directing the government. Only serve one term, every 10 years.
Roman Senate, Cont… By limiting consul’s time in office, Rome had system of checks and balances on power of government. Senate could also elect a dictator in event of war. Dictator = ruler with absolute power over government (usually for 6 months)
The Story of Cincinnatus An Ideal dictator 457 BC appointed by Senate Organized army, defeated enemy, attended victory celebration, and returned home within 15 days. Romans hoped future dictators would be modeled on Cincinnatus http://www.nndb.com/people/833/00010 7512/cincinnatus-1.jpg
Patricians vs. Plebeians Patricians held most power, while Plebeians struggled for equality. Plebeians gained from 1 st written Roman law, created in 450 BC – 12 Tables. Inscribed laws of the land on 12 Tables and placed in the Roman Forum. Forum = public meeting place Laws of 12 Tables clarified laws in Rome for all classes. http://historylink102.com/italy-pic/rf- overlooking-roman-forum.jpg
The Plebeians Eventually gained right to elect own representatives known as Tribunes. Tribunes worked in the Assembly; it wasn’t as powerful as the Senate. Over time, he could veto laws that were unfair for Plebeians and gained equal status as the Senate. Towards end of the Republic, the tribunes were as powerful as the Senate.
Structure of the Roman Political System Consuls Two appointed by Senate for one year terms Command army and direct Government Senate Senators chosen from Patrician class Serve for life and make laws Assembly Made up of Tribunes chosen from Plebeians Had limited power
Odds and Ends of the Political Structure Women, aliens, and slaves could not participate in government. Citizenship was granted to patricians and plebeians. Citizens had two main duties: Pay taxes Military service Military was mainly the legion – troop of 6,000 men. Similar to Greeks – citizens soldiers fought without pay and supplied own weapons
Quiz Tomorrow!! Quiz on information from these notes and the notes on Friday. Focus on fill in the blank areas, what the headings are focusing on, etc.