2 The Roman Republic Main Idea: Why Now: Power and Authority - The early Romans established a republic, which grew very powerful.Why Now:Fundamental values and institutions of western civilization began in Rome
3 The Roman Republic Terms: Setting the Stage: Republic, patrician, plebeian, tribune, consul, senate, dictator, legion, Punic Wars, and HannibalSetting the Stage:Rome grew from a small city to a major empire that stretched 3500 miles east and west . It will become the most famous and influential.
4 Origins of Rome 753 BC by Romulus and Remus Sons of the God Mars and a Latin princessThey were abandoned on the Tiber River and raised by a wolfThey decided to build a city on that spot for its strategic location and fertile soil
7 Origins of Rome Rome’s Geography Built on 7 rolling hills Mid - location:It is half way down the peninsulaAnd half way point of the Mediterranean Sea
8 Origins of Rome The First Romans 3 groups migrated to Italy Latins Settlement on the Palatine Hill (1st Romans)GreeksColonies along southern Italy (center of commerce)EtruscansSettle in northern Italy (Rome adopted their alphabet)
9 The Early Republic600 BC an Etruscan became King of Rome, this is the beginning of Rome’s growthForum: heart of Roman political lifeLast King of Rome, Tarquin the Proud (extremely harsh ruler)He was driven from power in 509 BCRome declared they would never be ruled by a King againEstablished a REPUBLIC: (from Latin res public, public affairs) form of government in which power rests with the citizens (free born males) who can vote for leaders
11 The Early Republic Patricians and Plebeians Patricians were wealthy landowners (held most the power)Inherited power and claimed ancestors gave them the right to rulePlebeians were commoners (farmers, artisans, merchants) who made up the majority of the populationEventually were able to vote but not hold public officeIn time formed own assembly with elected officials called TRIBUNES: protected the rights of the plebeians
12 The Early Republic The Twelve Tables Plebeians wanted written laws so the patricians couldn’t interrupt laws to suit themThe Twelve Tables: were carved and hung in the Forum, became the foundations of Roman lawAll free male citizens had the right to be protected under the law
13 The Early Republic SERVES FOR LIFE Command army Directed government Couldn’t be re-elected for 10 yearsOne couldn’t over rule the other300 members from upper classForeign and domestic policyEventually plebeians will be allowed inSERVES FOR LIFE
14 ROME USA Comparing Republics Executive Legislative Judicial Legal Code 2 Consuls elected by Assembly for 1 year, chief of government and head of ArmyExecutivePresident, elected by the people for 4 years, chief of government and ArmySenate 300 (life) head of foreign policy and financial policies, and advises ConsulsCenturiate Assembly soldiers (life) selects consuls and makes lawsTribal Assembly citizens grouped by where they live (life) elects tribunes and make lawsLegislativeSenate 100 (6 years) make laws and advise president on foreign policyHouse of Representatives 435 (2 years) make laws, originates revenues billsPraetors, judges, 8 chosen for 1 year by Centuriate AssemblyJudicialSupreme Court, 9 justices, appointed for life by president, highest courtTwelve Tables were a list of rules that were the basis of Roman legal codeLegal CodeUS Constitution is the basic law of the USAAll adult landowner malesCitizenshipAll native born or naturalized adults
15 Rome Spreads Its Power Rome Conquers Italy 4th c. Rome dominated Italy (defeated Etruscans and Greeks)Rome treated all conquered differently:Latins: Full citizensFarther from Rome: all rights but no voteAllies of Rome: just had to supply Roman Army and they would be left aloneHELPS BUILD A STRONG AND SUCCESSFUL EMPIRE!!!
16 Rome Spreads Its Power Rome’s Commercial Networks LOCATION: merchants moved by land and seaTraded wine and olive oilLarge and powerful Carthage in Northern Africa, once a Phoenician colony, was rising in power and influenceSTOOD IN ROMES WAY FOR DOMINANCE OF MEDITERRANEAN SEA
17 Rome Spreads Its Power War with Carthage Punic Wars: BC Rome v. Carthage1. Control of Sicily and W. Med.26 yearsCarthage defeated2. Hannibal: Carthaginian general assembled an Army of 50,000 infantry, 9,000 cavalry, and 60 elephantsWanted to surprise RomeAlmost won, then Rome regroupedRoman general Scipio decides to force Hannibal home by Rome going to attack CarthageCarthage is defeated3. Rome goes to Carthage and sets city on fire, sells 50,000 inhabitants into slaveryRESULTS: (1) Rome’s dominance in W. Med, (2) empire now stretched from Spain to Anatolia=MORE CHALLENGES