2 Hypothetical reconstruction of Roman Forum in Imperial times. Watercolor (18th century), Giuseppe Becchetti
3 Why were the Romans able to conquer Italy & the Mediterranean World Why were the Romans able to conquer Italy & the Mediterranean World? -Journal: 3 Ideas
4 Ancient Italy (c. 6th century B.C.) PEOPLE:The Latins-Rome: “The First Romans”The Etruscans-Northern Italy-Urbanized Rome:Building Programs (the Forum)-Influence on Romans:the arch, alphabetThe Greeks-Southern Italy and Sicilyart, architecture, literature, government, engineeringGEOGRAPHY:-Tiber River & Mediterranean Sea-Fertile Soil & Strategic Location
5 Excerpt from Livy’s The Early History of Rome Think about…What danger did the Romans face?What did Horatius do to defend the Romans?What qualities does Horatius demonstrate in this passage?What is the moral of Livy’s account? What can we infer about Roman values based on this?
8 The Roman Republic (509 B.C. – 27 B.C.) 509 B.C., Romans rejected Etruscan king (monarchy) and established a republic.Power rests with the citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders.In Rome, citizenship with voting rights was granted only to free-born male citizens.
9 The Roman Republic (509 B.C. – 27 B.C.) STRUGGLE FOR POWER: CLASS CONFLICTPatricians- wealthy landowners who held most of the power: inherited power and social statusPlebeians- (Plebs) common farmers, artisans and merchants who made up the majority of the population: can vote, but can’t ruleTribunes- elected representatives who protect plebeians’ political rights.
10 The Roman Republic (509 B.C. – 27 B.C.) A “Balanced” GovernmentRome elects two consuls– one to lead army, one to direct governmentSenate- chosen from patricians (Roman upper class), make foreign and domestic policyPopular assemblies elect tribunes, make laws for plebeians (commoners)Dictators- leaders appointed briefly in times of crisis (appt. by consuls and senate)
12 See Chart: Comparing Republican Governments What similarities do you see in the governments of the Roman Republic and the United States?What do you think is the most significant difference between the Roman Republic and that of the United States today?
13 The Roman Republic (509 B.C. – 27 B.C.) THE TWELVE TABLES451 B.C., officials carve Roman laws on twelve tablets and hung in Forum.Laws confirm right of all free citizens to protection of the lawBecome the basis for later Roman law
14 The Twelve Tables: Primary Source Review What can we infer about Roman values based on the laws cited in the Twelve Tables?How do the Twelve Tables compare to modern laws in the United States?
15 Why were the Romans able to conquer Italy & the Mediterranean World?
21 Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.) Three Wars between Rome and Carthage 1st Punic War- Rome gains control of Sicily & western Mediterranean Sea.The destruction of Carthage during the Punic Wars. New York Public Library Picture Collection
22 Punic Wars ( B.C.)2nd Punic War- Carthaginian General Hannibal’s “surprise” attack through Spain & France60,000 soldiers and 60 elephantsRomans experience severe losses, but eventually ward off attacks & invade North AfricaThe destruction of Carthage during the Punic Wars. New York Public Library Picture Collection
23 Hannibal's troops crossing the Rhone River on their way to attack northern Italy.
24 Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.) 3rd Punic War- Rome seizes Carthage Scipio- Roman StrategistConquered people sold into slaveryThe destruction of Carthage during the Punic Wars. New York Public Library Picture Collection
25 Why were the Romans able to conquer Italy & the Mediterranean World Why were the Romans able to conquer Italy & the Mediterranean World? (Give a few reasons and explain) Do you think the Roman Republic owed its success more to its form of government, or its army? Why? How does Rome’s rise to power relate to modern efforts to gain power and authority?
26 Forthcoming…How did the struggle for power between patricians and plebeians affect the Roman Republic?How does leadership impact the power and authority of a nation/republic/empire?Julius CaesarAugustusThe Good & Bad EmperorsDiocletian & Constantine