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Jefferson’s presidency ( )

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Presentation on theme: "Jefferson’s presidency ( )"— Presentation transcript:

1 Jefferson’s presidency (1800-1808)

2 Major Campaign Issues Alien and Sedition Acts Increase in taxes
Heavy defense expenditures Reduction of trade with France Anti-British sentiment over impressment of American seamen

3 Electoral Tie! Jefferson-Burr receive 73 votes each
House of Representatives decides Presidency- Hamilton supports Jefferson Burr is elected Vice-President

4 12th Amendment 1800 Election demonstrated the inadequacy of the Constitution Proposed the separate balloting of president and vice-president

5 Washington, D.C. 1791- Pierre L’Enfant, a French architect, designed the layout of the city He fought in the American Revolution He, along with Washington, designed the White House

6 District of Columbia Adams was the first to move in, 1800
Jefferson first full-term president to live in the White House DC stands for District of Columbia. It is called District of Columbia, because it was built on land of the Territory of Columbia, a 10 square mile piece of land, that used to be part of Virginia and Maryland. The territory of Columbia was named such after Christopher Columbus.

7 Jefferson’s Inaugural Address
Stressed the limited government Support of states’ rights Preservation of civil liberties “Peace, commerce and friendship with all nations, and entangling alliances with none” Jefferson rode his own horse to the inauguration to prove he was different.

8 Jeffersonian Democracy
Goals -liberty -equality -strong local government -reduce national debt -agriculture based economy -expand U.S. territory -anti-war Reality -racist -loose interpretation of Constitution -regulated national economy -led U.S. to brink of war

9 Events Leading to the Louisiana Purchase
1800 Spain gives France (Napoleon) back the Louisiana territory 1803-Napoleon loses interest in American empire Spanish officials still in New Orleans – closed New Orleans to Americans Jefferson feared the threat of an imperial power and possible trade restrictions on the Mississippi Jefferson sends ministers to France to purchase New Orleans and West Florida – they ended up with the entire territory

10 Constitutional Question
No clause explicitly stated that a president could purchase foreign land Jefferson submits the purchase agreement to Senate arguing the lands could be added to U.S. as an application of the Presidential power to make treaties

11 Lewis and Clark Expedition
Scientific exploration of the Louisiana Territory Strengthened U.S. Claims to Oregon Improved American Indian Relations Developed maps for settlers and fur trappers

12 John Marshall Federalist appointed by Adams before leaving office
His decisions strengthen the role of the Supreme Court at the expense of state’s rights Jefferson’s cousin

13 Marbury v. Madison Jefferson wanted to block the appointment of “midnight judges” by Adams Directed Madison to refuse to deliver the commission to William Marbury Marbury sued – does not get his commission Marshall Ruled the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional By ruling a law of Congress unconstitutional Marshall established the doctrine of “judicial review” Supreme Court could now overrule actions of the other two branches – extended their power

14 Aaron Burr Not re-elected – plotted against
Jefferson with his party “Quids” Federal Conspiracy Burr planned to win governorship of New York and unite 5 New England states to form a Northern Confederacy Burr was defeated in New York conspiracy failed upon Burr’s defeat Burr angered by Hamilton’s remarks – they duel- Hamilton dies

15 Aaron Burr (cont.) Burr leaves after Hamilton’s death goes to New Orleans Burr conspires with Gen. Wilkinson – either to establish an independent republic or seizure of territory in Spanish America Tried for treason – not guilty – ruined his career and reputation

16 Jefferson’s Second Term
Difficulties Abroad Challenges to U.S. Neutrality Britain and France regularly seize the ships of neutral nations and confiscate cargo – chief offender Britain Britain is capturing American sailors and impressing (forcing) them to serve in British navy

17 Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
British ship Leopard fired on U.S. ship Chesapeake 3 Americans killed; 4 others impressed into British navy Anti-British sentiment HIGH

18 Embargo Act 1807 Reaction to French and British violations of neutrality Prohibited American merchant ships from sailing to any foreign port Jefferson hoped British would stop violating the rights of neutral nations rather than lose U.S. trade Embargo backfired – hurt U.S. economy Jefferson wanted to avoid war and remain neutral like his predecessor

19 Jefferson’s Presidential Record
First Term Reduced the size of federal government, repealed excise taxes, lowered the national debt by a third Louisiana Purchase – doubled the size of the country Second Term Foreign affairs preoccupied Jefferson - Napoleonic wars -attempted to avoid a policy of either appeasement or war by the use of economic pressure –which was a failure He reduced the size of the military and eliminated federal jobs

20 Non-Intercourse Act 1809 Jefferson repeals Embargo Act
U.S. ships can now trade with all nations except Britain and France President can authorize trade with Britain or France when they cease violating neutrality rights

21 Jefferson leaves office – continues precedent set by Washington
James Madison will be his successor in the “Virginia dynasty”

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