Presentation on theme: "Challenges to the New Republic (1789-1825). The “Father of Our Country” 1789-1797 First Cabinet: Jefferson – Sec. State, Hamilton -Sec. Treasury "— Presentation transcript:
The “Father of Our Country” 1789-1797 First Cabinet: Jefferson – Sec. State, Hamilton -Sec. Treasury Hamilton wanted a large National Bank (the Bank of the U.S. in 1792) – it barely passed! He wanted stable economy, strong defense, no national debt and a way to regulate state and local banks.
The Federalists – Led by Hamilton; believed in a loose interpretation of Constitution (Elastic Clause) Democratic-Republicans – Led by Jefferson wanted a strict interpretation of Constitution and said the National Bank was unconstitutional
The French Revolution (1789- 1799) created problems for the U.S. The U.S. said it was neutral. Were we? 1793 – Britain began seizing U.S. ships and impressing U.S. sailors Jay’s Treaty 1794 – British gave up forts on American side of Great Lakes, but kept restrictions on U.S. shipping/ trade. War was avoided, but some cried foul.
Americans forces under General “Mad Anthony” Wayne defeat alliance of Native Americans led by Shawnee War chief, Blue Jacket, near Toledo, Ohio. This led to increased American settlement as Indians gave up 2/3 of Ohio and S. Indiana. Pinckney’s Treaty – 1795; with Spain (got LA from France in 1763) allowed the U.S. to use the port of New Orleans.
Problems with France, offended by Jay’s Treaty, dominated the Federalist, Adams’, tenure. They copied the British and began seizing and fighting with American ships. Alien Act of 1798 – toughened the citizenship requirements for immigrants and restricted free speech. Most new immigrants usually voted Democratic-Republican. Sedition Act of 1798 – made it illegal to criticize the government in a time of crisis (i.e. the French threat).
Didn’t believe in a strong presidency or federal government; he was for “states’ rights” Had Congress remove Alien & Sedition Acts; he was for 1 st Amendment Cut federal taxes on stamps & land & made cuts in government spending and reduced the debt from $80 Million to $59 Million-a minor miracle! Marbury vs. Madison (1803) – Supreme Court Case that set precedent for judicial review – the power to decide the constitutionality of federal law.
The Louisiana Purchase (1803) – from France for $15 Million was apex of his presidency Lewis & Clark Expedition (1804-06) – Explored LA & reached Pacific Ocean Zebulon Pike (1806- 07) explored S.W. Louisiana
Embargo Act of 1807 – suspended trade with Great Britain Britain practiced impressment – a policy of seizing U.S. sailors and forcing them to work in Royal Navy We thought Britain would need our food and cotton more than we needed their clothing – it failed because it hurt U.S. merchants & our economy Congress ended it 1809 as Jefferson left office, but we were still having problems with the British Empire
The War of 1812 – Madison felt there was no choice but war Britain invaded & captured Washington, DC The U.S. failed to take Canada We won most battles and therefore the war Battle of New Orleans (1814) – Andrew Jackson becomes a national hero
He wanted to prevent Spain or any other European nation from ever having colonies in the Americas Monroe Doctrine (1823) – said we would use force to keep Western Hemisphere free of European domination We saw ourselves as the supreme power in the hemisphere We lacked the military to enforce it, but it will shape American foreign policy in the late 1800s and early 1900s