Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

THE ENLIGHTENMENT. Principles – Tenets of the Enlightenment –Rationalism –Freedom –Toleration –Progress –Individualism –Relativism –Deism.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "THE ENLIGHTENMENT. Principles – Tenets of the Enlightenment –Rationalism –Freedom –Toleration –Progress –Individualism –Relativism –Deism."— Presentation transcript:


2 Principles – Tenets of the Enlightenment –Rationalism –Freedom –Toleration –Progress –Individualism –Relativism –Deism

3 Creation of a Secular/Public Culture –Print culture – newspapers & journals –Salons Societies where men & women met in private homes to discuss Enlightenment ideas –Scientific Academies Began in London & Paris Performed experiments Kept collections of “rarities” Listened to papers being presented

4 Locke Montesquieu Rousseau Hobbes Condorcet Philosophes (Enlightenment Thinkers)

5 Wollstonecraft Gouges Voltaire Astell

6 Smith Kant Diderot Hume

7 –Government John Locke (1632-1704) –God’s existence could be logically proved –Government as a form of contract –Natural rights for all people Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755) –Primary concern was to check the authority of French kings (anti-absolutism) –Criticized French society Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) –“Man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains” –Role/importance of the “General Will” –Society is corrupt and it corrupts people

8 –Government (cont’d) Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) –Wrote Leviathan in which he stated that »Humans are by nature brutish »Government is need to control human instincts –Government as a contract among men who agreed to elevate a ruler to a position of power above them

9 –Women & Society Marquis de Condorcet (1743-1794) –Society should always better itself »Women should have equal political rights as men »Opposed to slavery –Progress –Executed during the French Revolution (guillotine) Mary Astell (1666-1731) –Women should have a place in public as well as private life

10 Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) –Vindication of the Rights of Woman »Women have been weakened by too much confinement in the home »Women are limited by valuing superficial attributes (clothes, appearance) –Women should have full citizenship, economic independence, and equal educational opportunities –Criticized other Enlightenment thinkers for not fully supporting women’s rights

11 –Women & Society Olympe de Gouges (1745-1793) –Declaration of the Rights of Women »Modeled after the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen »Women should have same rights as men including the right to hold public office –Executed during the French Revolution (guillotine) Issue of Slavery –Growing criticism; often seemed to be someone else’s problem –Most Enlightenment thinkers felt it was wrong, but what to do about it?

12 –Religion Voltaire (1694-1778) very outspoken about his ideas –“Crush the infamous thing” – opposed to anything that inhibits people’s ability to think/reason –Rule of law, free press, humane treatment of criminals, effective government – not oppression –Feared the power of the people David Hume (1711-1776) –Critical of all religions & human superstitions –Reason and experience were the only keys to knowledge –But even the existence of reason and the mind are uncertain

13 –Education Denis Diderot (1713-1784) –Knowledge is the key to human happiness –Encyclopedia – collection of contributions from many Enlightenment thinkers Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) –Bringing light into the dark corners of the mind –The mind cannot understand everything; sometimes you must use faith

14 –Education (cont’d) John Locke –Essay Concerning Human Understanding »Tabula rasa (blank slate) – humans not born w/ inherent ideas »Environment is a decisive force in shaping a person’s character & intelligence (not class) »Education is key to human behavior & active learning must be part of it

15 –Economics Adam Smith (1723-1790) –Optimistic view of humanity (people can control their passions for the good of the community) –Wealth of Nations »Laissez-faire economics – there is an invisible hand controlling the economy »Economy will regulate itself w/o government interference –Free markets – make as much money as you can through competition –True basis of wealth was labor (need division of labor for efficiency & most productivity)

Download ppt "THE ENLIGHTENMENT. Principles – Tenets of the Enlightenment –Rationalism –Freedom –Toleration –Progress –Individualism –Relativism –Deism."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google