Presentation on theme: "Influencing Human Thought Middle Ages/Dark Ages (500-1300) –Survival –Average person illiterate –Roman Catholic Church Dominate Authority God created."— Presentation transcript:
Influencing Human Thought Middle Ages/Dark Ages (500-1300) –Survival –Average person illiterate –Roman Catholic Church Dominate Authority God created Earth God created Man Bible –1st Book published –most published book in the world
Renaissance (1300-1600) Europe Rediscovered Greek and Roman Ideas –Celebrated Human Race and it’s abilities Painters Architects Musicians Scholars Mathematicians –Algebra
(1500-1700) –Scientific Method Evidence/Proof –Natural Laws –Trade –Transmission of Ideas Scientific Revolution /Age of Exploration
Enlightenment (1600-1790) (Intellectual Movement) Emerged from Dark Ages Human Rights Common Sense Tolerance Government derives power from consent of the people Relativism: cannot impose values on others by force - all cultures are valuable Rationalism: Human reason and science could combat ignorance, superstition, and tyranny to build a better world
Basics of the Enlightenment Humans could better themselves without the assistance of religion or the divine providence of a ruler. The meaning of life would be discovered by the application of reason and natural science. Laws should be based on the ideas of scientific inquiry. If people could choose, they would choose liberty.
John Locke English philosopher who establishes several key ideas of the Enlightenment Believed in individual rights – Life, Liberty, Property Locke’s optimistic, liberal position contrasts with that of Thomas Hobbes (1588- 1679) who believed governments were forged to keep people from destroying each other John Locke 1632-1704
The Heirs of Locke Montesquieu, a French aristocrat, writes The Spirit of Laws where he champions freedom and condemns slavery as “unnatural” He also describes a constitutional monarchy in which the three branches (legislative, executive, and judicial) are free and independent of one another, creating a system of checks and balances (influenced the U.S. Constitution) In writing the American Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) uses Locke’s ideas that the governed have the right to revolt if their ruler is unjust and that life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness are inalienable rights Montesquieu (1689-1755)
Mary Wollstonecraft Early spokesperson for Women’s Rights Argued the ideals of equality should be extended to women as well as men. Governments should extend political rights to women as well Women should also enjoy educational freedoms as well Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792)
Summary Enlightenment thinkers thought that like laws in natural science, there were laws governing human society. Laws of nature (natural laws) give people rights of life, liberty and property. Men can build a fair society based on reason (rationality). They challenged the theory of "Divine Right of Kings."
Lasting Effects Driven by advances in math and science Introduced new ideas about religion,man, and the influence of nature Caused changes in politics, economics and culture Movement towards “Human Rights”