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Chapter 2 – BIOCHEMISTRY 2-3 “Carbon Compounds” A.The Chemistry of Carbon 1. Molecules that contain carbon (and hydrogen) are called ORGANIC COMPOUNDS.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 – BIOCHEMISTRY 2-3 “Carbon Compounds” A.The Chemistry of Carbon 1. Molecules that contain carbon (and hydrogen) are called ORGANIC COMPOUNDS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 – BIOCHEMISTRY 2-3 “Carbon Compounds” A.The Chemistry of Carbon 1. Molecules that contain carbon (and hydrogen) are called ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 2. Each carbon atom has 4 valence electrons -- allows carbon atom to form 4 bonds with other atoms -- can form long carbon chains and rings

2 3. Carbon can form very large, complex molecules  called POLYMERS a. A polymer is made from joining 1000’s of smaller molecules (MONOMERS) in a long chain b. The process of joining monomers together to form polymers is called POLYMERIZATION

3 4.The 4 main type of ORGANIC COMPOUNDS found in living things are: 1) CARBOHYDRATES 2) LIPIDS 3) NUCLEIC ACIDS 4) PROTEINS

4 B.The Organic Compounds 1. CARBOHYDRATES a. Made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio -- ex. C 6 H 12 O 6 (glucose) C 15 H 30 O 15 (a sugar) C 10 H 20 O 8 (a lipid) b. Living things use carbohydrates for: 1) main source of energy 2) to make up certain cell parts CARBS

5 c. 2 main types of carbs: 1) sugars 2) starches d. SUGARS  end in “ose” 1) Simple sugars -- called MONOSACCHARIDES -- one sugar molecule -- ex. Glucose, fructose, galactose 2) If join 2 simple sugars together you form a 2 sugar molecule  DISACCHARIDE -- ex. Sucrose, maltose, lactose

6 3) If keep on joining simple sugars you form a many sugar molecule  POLYSACCARIDE (a.k.a. STARCH) e.STARCH 1) A polysaccharide  a long chain of sugars 2) ex. Pasta, rice, breads CARBS

7 3) animals store excess sugar as a polysaccharide called GLYCOGEN (“animal starch”) in their LIVER 4) Plants store excess sugar as starch 5) Another important polysaccharide to plants is CELLULOSE  makes up the CELL WALL in PLANT CELLS

8 2.LIPIDS a. Also made of C, H, and O (but not in 1:2:1 ratio) -- C 6 H 12 O 5 b. 3 main types: 1) FATS2) OILS3) WAXES c. Uses: 1) energy (2x as much as carbs) 2) make up cell membranes 3) waterproof coverings LIPS

9 d. Made up of 3 FATTY ACID MOLECULES attached to 1 GLYCEROL MOLECULE Glycerol Fatty acids LIPS FAT

10 e. SATURATED FAT – solid at room temp -- all carbon to carbon bonds are single in the fatty acid -- contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms (saturated) LIPS

11 f.UNSATURATED FAT – liquid at room temperature -- contains at least on double or triple bond between 2 carbon atoms in a fatty acid -- does not contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms  Saturated fatty acid  Unsaturated fatty acid Unsaturated Fat LIPS

12 -- if contains more than one double or triple bond –> called a POLYUNSATURATED FAT

13 3.NUCLEIC ACIDS a. Contains C, H, O, and N, and P (Nitrogen) (Phosphorus) b. 2 main types: DNA and RNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) (ribonucleic acid) c. Made of a long chain of NUCLEOTIDES  made of:for DNA for RNA a. 5 – carbon sugar deoxyribose ribose b. A phosphate group c. A nitrogen base guanine (G) G (1 of 4 types) cytosine (C) C adenine (A) A thymine (T) uracil (U) NUCS

14 DNA  double-stranded RNA  single-stranded d. Uses  Nucleic Acids store and transmit genetic information

15 4.PROTEINS a. Made of C, H, O, and Nitrogen, and some have Sulfur b. Used by organisms for GROWTH and REPAIR c. Made up of a long chain of AMINO ACIDS STRUCTURE OF AN AMINO ACID -- all amino acids have an AMINO GROUP and a CARBOXYL GROUP -- amino acids differ from each other in their R SIDE CHAIN PROS

16 d. There are 20 different types of amino acids

17 e.If join 2 amino acids together forms a DIPEPTIDE -- amino acids are held together by a PEPTIDE BOND f.If keep on adding amino acids to a dipeptide forms a POLYPEPTIDE PROS

18 g.A protein is made of 1 or more POLYPEPTIDE CHAINS h. Proteins differ from each other in their order of amino acids -- most proteins are 100’s of amino acids long -- a protein of 100 amino acids made with the 20 different known amino acids can have different arrangements (1.268 x )  there is GREAT VARIETY in proteins PROS

19 i.Proteins also differ from each other in their SHAPE PProteins bend into different shapes based on the order of their amino acids PROTEIN SHAPES h.The instructions for building proteins in a cell is contained in DNA PROS

20 j.MAJOR TYPES OF PROTEINS: 1. ENZYMES – control chemical reactions in living things 2. the major BUILDING MATERIAL of cells 3. HORMONES – chemical messengers 4. ANTIBODIES – made by white blood cells to fight disease PROS


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