3 Questions1. What is the Grammar Translation Method?2. Why is it called the classical method?3. How did it come into being?4. What are its theoretical basis?5. What are its main features?6. What are its classroom teaching techniques?6. What are its classroom teaching procedures?
4 The Grammar-Translation Method is a method of foreign or second language teaching that uses translation and grammar study as the main teaching and learning activities. At one time it was called Classical Method since it was first used in the teaching of the classical languages of Latin and Greek.
5 1. BackgroundGrammar analysis and translation were the basic procedures in foreign language teaching from 16th century.
6 Latin was a language of spoken and written communication in the Western world, and was the world’s most widely studied foreign language.
7 The purpose of learning Latin was to study classical culture and to train the mind by logical analysis of the classical language. People made a study of language in order to understand the classic works of ancient times and in order to be able to teach students, enabling them to understand and appreciate those classic works.
8 In 18th century, modern languages were taught using the same procedures. Grammar-Translation Method came into being in the 18th century.In the 19th century, more experts of foreign language teaching adopted the strategy of combining grammar rules with translation.
9 2. Theoretical Basis 1) Theory of language （1）All languages originate from one language and are governed by a common grammar.（2）Written form of the language is superior to the spoken form.（3）Students’ first language is the reference system in the learning of the target language.
10 （4）Understanding and memorizing grammatical rules of languages help to develop mentally. （5）Latin grammar is the most logical and well-organized grammar.（6）Language was a body of knowledge to be learned.（7）The emphasis is an intellectual development(智力发展）.
11 2) Theory of learningThe mind of human beings has various faculties that can be trained separately. The theory of learning underlying the Grammar-Translation Method was Faculty Psychology（官能心理学）.
12 3. Basic Principles1) Main features（1）As its name suggests, the Grammar-Translation Method emphasized the teaching of the second language grammar.
13 （2）Grammar is regarded as the core of language, so it is the main content in foreign language classroom.（3）The process of learning grammar is an important means of training mental abilities.
14 （4）Language materials are arranged according to grammar. （5）Analysis, explanation, translation are main teaching activities.（6）The major practice is translating from and into the target language.
15 （7）The focus is reading and writing. （8）First language is the medium of instruction.（9）Sentence is the basic unit of language teaching and learning.（10）Accuracy is emphasized.
16 2) ObjectivesThe objectives of language teaching are enabling students:to read and translate literature;to understand the target language;to develop their minds;to gain a better understanding of the first language.
17 3) Techniques（1）Reading passages mainly from literary works（2）Translation（3）Deductive teaching of grammar (Grammar rules are taught directly by the teacher, with exception to each rule noted. Then the rules are practiced through translation exercises.)
18 （4）Analysis and comparison （5）Memorization（6） Comprehension questions to check reading（7） Fill-in-blanks（8） Sentence making（9） Composition
19 4) ProceduresPhase oneExplanation of new words and expressionsTeaching of new structures
20 Phase twoStudents’ translation of the textTeacher’s analysis of the textAnswering possible questions from studentsPhase threeWorking out answers to comprehension questionsWritten work
21 4. Summary and Comments Advantages: （1）The first language is maintained as the reference system in the learning of the second language.（2） Systematic study of grammatical rules plays an important role in fostering students’ ability of reading comprehension and producing grammatically correct sentences.
22 （3） The focus on understanding culture provides the situation in which reading and writing abilities are well trained.（4） It is relatively easy to apply.
23 Disadvantages:（1） Overemphasis on translation（2） Dependence on first language（3）Too much emphasis on reading and writing， Listening and speaking neglected
24 （4） Not meeting the communicative needs of the students （5） Rote-learning （机械学习）/ Memorizing grammar rules and bilingual word lists does not motivate students to actively communicate in the target language.
25 5. Suggestion Backward Limited use for Listening & Speaking. Controlled use for reading & writing.Limited use for grammar, vocabulary.Limited use for junior gradesControlled use for senior grades.
26 6. Discussion Your own opinion and judgment of the Method What is the focus of a Grammar-Translation classroom?