Presentation on theme: "History of language teaching According to the learners’ needs. Change of skills. Reading and Writing Speaking and Listening."— Presentation transcript:
History of language teaching According to the learners’ needs. Change of skills. Reading and Writing Speaking and Listening
18th & 19th century: Modern languages were taught using the same basic procedures that were used for teaching Latin: –GRAMMAR RULES-LISTS OF VOCABULARY-SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.
19th century innovations Increasing demand for oral proficiency in foreign languages as Europeans travelled. Marcel (1793-1896): child language learning. Reading Prendergast (1806-1886): Children’s use of situational cues to interpret utterances and memorized phrases and “routines” in speaking. First structural syllabus. Gouin (1831-1896): Children language. Use of gestures and actions.
The Reform Movement (around XXth century) New ideas discussed in books, articles, pamphlets... Specialists sought new ideas and advocated: –The study of the spoken language. –Phonetic training. –The use of dialogues to introduce conversational phrases and idioms. –An inductive approach to the teaching of grammar. –Avoidance of the mother tongue.
The Reform Movement Henry Sweet (1845-1912): –The Practical Study of Languages: Careful selection of what is to be taught. Imposing limits on what is to be taught. Four skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. Grading materials from simple to complex.
General considerations of the Reform Movement (Sweet, Viëtor). The spoken language is primary. Include phonetics in teaching and teachers. Learners should hear the lang first, before seeing it in written form. Sentences should be taught in meaningful contexts. Grammar should be taught inductively. Avoid translation. Use mother tongue to clarify.
The Direct/Natural Method (until 1920’s) Sauveur (1826-1907) in Europe; Berlitz in the USA: Berlitz Method (commercial lang schools): –Classroom instruction in Target lang. –Learning based on everyday vocabulary & sentences. –Small and intensive classes. –Oral communication skills in graded progression. Communicative exchanges between student-teacher. –Grammar taught inductively. –Use of demonstration, objects and pictures in class.
Principles of the Berlitz school Never translate: demonstrate. Never explain: act. Never make a speech: ask questions. Never imitate mistakes: correct. Never speak with single words: use sentences. Never use the book: use your lesson plan. Never go too fast: keep the pace of the student. Never speak too slowly: speak normally. Never speak too quickly/loudly: speak naturally. Never be impatient: take it easy.
1923: A study concluded that: No single method could guarantee successful results. Conversational skills were impractical in view of the restricted time. Limited skills of the teachers. Irrelevance of conversational skills for average American students. 1940’s: Audiolingualism, etc.
Issues to form a method What goal? What skills? What language content? How organize, sequence and present a lesson? Role of native language? What techniques and activities work best? How is SLA accomplished?
Learn a language to read its literature. Grammar Translation: To know the target language grammar rules (syntax and morphology) and translate according to the native language. Reading and writing are the major focus. Learning of vocabulary based on bilingual word lists, dictionary and memorization. Accuracy is emphasized. Grammar is taught deductively. The student’s native language is the medium of instruction. THE GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD (1840’s-1940’s)
Memorize (=learn by heart) this list Performance Task Lechery Outcome To mar Bonfire Anon Primrose way Actuación Tarea Lujuria Resultado Estropear Hoguera Luego Caminito de rosas