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Chapter 2 The Grammar-Translation Method (GTM)

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1 Chapter 2 The Grammar-Translation Method (GTM)
Textbook: Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. (2th ed.). Oxford University Press.

2 Background Classical Method The study of the grammar
- first used in teaching Latin and Greek - read and appreciate foreign literature The study of the grammar Exercise mental muscle - help students growing intellectually

3 Objectives Memorizing verb forms, grammar rules, and vocabulary.
Ability to read the text (literature). Translating from L1 to L2 and from L2 to L1. (L1=native language / L2= target language) To develop reading and writing skills. Providing students good mental exercise.

4 Observations Reading classical texts at beginning.
Classes are taught in the native language. Students need to translate from one language to another. Much vocabulary is introduced in the form of lists of isolated words. Emphasizing the written language. Instruction focuses on the grammar rules.

5 Characteristics Literary language is superior to spoken language.
Successful learners = To translate each language into the other. The primary skills are reading and writing. To find native language equivalents for target language words. To learn about the rules of TG. Ss should memorize verb conjugations and forms.

6 Teacher’s Role Traditional instructor. The authority in the classroom.
What does the teacher do? - explain - translate - conduct practices - correct mistakes

7 Learner’s Role Do as the teacher says.
Learners interact with the teacher, not with each other. What does the student do? - translate - study words and rules - memorize

Answering the ten questions

9 1. What are the goals of teachers who use the Grammar-Translation Method?
*To be able to read literature *To translate from one language to another *To develop students’ minds

10 2. What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the students?
The teacher is the authority The students do as the teacher says

11 3. What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?
use the students’ native language Translate from one language to another Students study grammar deductively Students memorize vocabulary and grammar rules

12 4. What is the nature of student-teacher interaction
4.What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? What is the nature of student-student interaction? Most of the interaction in the classroom is from the teacher to the students. Little student-student interaction

13 5. How are the feelings of the students dealt with?

14 6. How is the language viewed? How is culture viewed?
Literary language is considered superior to spoken language. Culture is viewed as consisting of literature and the fine arts.

15 7. What areas of language are emphasized
7. What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized? Vocabulary and grammar Reading and writing

16 8. What is the role of the students’ native language?
The language that is used in class is mostly the students’ native language.

17 9. How is evaluation accomplished?
Written tests 1.  Translation 2.  Question about the target culture 3.  Questions about the application of grammar

18 10. How does the teacher respond to student errors?
Having the students get the correct answer is considered very important.

Translation of a literary passage Reading comprehension questions Antonyms/synonyms Cognates : Deductive application of rule

Fill-in-the-blank Memorization Use words in sentences Composition

21 Cognates Spanish students learn that Spanish ‘-dad’ corresponds to ‘-ty’ of English as in realidad - reality.

22 Deductive application of rule
Grammar rule : two-word verbs-turn up wake up get on put away John put away his book. John put his book away./ John put it away.

23 memorization Vocabulary item : ambition=野心; career=職業
Verb conjugation:drink drank drunk

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