Presentation on theme: "Podpora rozvoje cizích jazyků pro Evropu 21. stol. INVESTICE DO ROZVOJE VZDĚLÁVÁNÍ Tento projekt je spolufinancován Evropským sociálním fondem a státním."— Presentation transcript:
Podpora rozvoje cizích jazyků pro Evropu 21. stol. INVESTICE DO ROZVOJE VZDĚLÁVÁNÍ Tento projekt je spolufinancován Evropským sociálním fondem a státním rozpočtem České republiky.
APARTHEID Apartheid (Afrikaans pronunciation: separateness) a system of legal racial segregation enforced by the National Party government in South Africa between 1948 and 1994 the rights of the majority black inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and minority rule by whites was maintained.
racial segregation in South Africa began in colonial times but apartheid as an official policy was introduced following the general election of 1948 new legislation classified inhabitants into racial groups: "black", "white", "coloured", and "Indian" residential areas were segregated sometimes by means of forced removals.
from 1958 – Blacks - deprived of their citizenship legally becoming citizens of one of ten tribally based self- governing homelands called bantustans four of which became nominally independent states the government segregated: education, medical care, and other public services provided black people with services inferior to those of whites
Apartheid sparked significant internal resistance violence as well as a long trade embargo against South Africa a series of popular uprisings and protests were met banning of opposition and imprisoning of anti-apartheid leaders unrest spread and became more violent state organizations responded with increasing repression and state-sponsored violence
reforms to apartheid in the 1980s failed to quell the mounting opposition in 1990 President Frederik Willem de Klerk began negotiations to the end of apartheid, culminating in multi-racial democratic elections in 1994, which were won by the African National Congress under Nelson Mandela the vestiges of apartheid still shape South African politics and society
colonialism and apartheid - a major impact on women since they suffered both racial and gender discrimination oppression against African women was different from discrimination against men they had very few or no legal rights no access to education and no right to own property many African women worked as agricultural or domestic workers - wages were extremely low, if existent children suffered from diseases caused by malnutrition and sanitary problems mortality rates were therefore hig
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela born 18 July 1918 served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999 the first South African president to be elected in a fully representative democratic election before his presidency, Mandela was an anti-apartheid activist, and the leader of Umkhonto we Sizwe - the armed wing of the African National Congress (ANC).
the South African courts convicted him on charges of sabotage as well as other crimes committed while he led the movement against apartheid Mandela served 27 years in prison - spending many of these years on Robben Island Mandela supported reconciliation and negotiation helped lead the transition towards multi-racial democracy in South Africa
Since the end of apartheid - many have frequently praised Mandela - including former opponents in South Africa he is often known as Madiba - an honorary title adopted by elders of Mandela's clan. The title has come to be synonymous with Nelson Mandela.
Mandela has received more than 250 awards over four decades most notably the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize in November 2009, the United Nations General Assembly announced that Mandela's birthday (18 July) is to be known as 'Mandela Day' to mark his contribution to world freedom
INVESTICE DO ROZVOJE VZDĚLÁVÁNÍ Tento projekt je spolufinancován Evropským sociálním fondem a státním rozpočtem České republiky. Tato výuková prezentace byla pořízena z finančních prostředků hrazených Evropským sociálním fondem a rozpočtem České republiky.