Gerunds and Infinitives as Direct Objects
Gerunds used as subject of the sentence.
Dancing is fun.
Gerunds used as objects
He enjoys working.
Gerunds: Ving Gerunds often follow verbs that indicate that an action is happening or has happened. We enjoy going to concerts. (you can only enjoy things you are doing or have done – not things you haven’t done yet.)
Verbs followed by Gerunds (not Infinitives)
Appreciate + Ving Avoid Delay Deny Discuss Dislike Enjoy Excuse Finish understand Keep Mention Mind Miss Postpone Quit Recall Recommend Resent suggest
Some expressions are used with gerunds
Be busy, can’t help, have fun, it’s no use, it’s not worth (EX) I’m busy helping them.
Infinitives used as subjects
To study is fun!
Infinitives used as objects
I want to dance.
Infinitives: to V Infinitives often follow verbs that indicate that an action will or could happen. We hope to go to the concert. (You can hope for things that could happen not things that have already happened)
Infinitives vs. Prepositional Phrases
Be sure not to confuse an infinitive—a verbal consisting of “to” plus a verb form—with a prepositional phrase beginning with “to”, which consists of “to” plus a noun or pronoun and any modifiers. Infinitives: to fly, to draw, to become, to enter, to stand, to catch, to belong Prepositional Phrases: to him, to the committee, to my house, to the mountains, to us, to this address
Some verbs can be used with Gerunds and Infinitives and have the Same Meaning I like cooking. I like to cook. She started losing weight She started to lose weight.
Some verbs although they can be used after both gerunds and infinitives have a different meaning. remember forget regret stop try get
Different Meaning She stopped smoking. (no more smoking)
She stopped to smoke. (stop walking so that she could smoke.)
A Gerund Phrase is a group of words beginning with a gerund and followed most often by modifiers, direct objects, and/or prepositional phrases. The gerund phrase functions as the subject of the sentence. Finding a needle in a haystack would be easier than what we're trying to do. Finding (gerund) a needle (direct object of action) in a haystack (prepositional phrase) The gerund phrase functions as the direct object of the sentence. My teacher likes questioning us on our math skills. questioning (gerund) us (direct object of action) On our math skills (prepositional phrase)
A Gerund is a verbal that ends in “ing” and functions as a noun.
Gerund as subject: Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences. (Traveling is the gerund.) Gerund as direct object: They do not appreciate singing. (The gerund is singing.) Gerund as subject complement: My cat's favorite activity is sleeping. (The gerund is sleeping.) Gerund as object of preposition: The police arrested him for speeding. (The gerund is speeding.)
Gerunds used as object of the preposition
I am thinking about taking the children to Mexico.
Common preposition combinations followed by gerunds
Be excited about, complain about, talk about, think about, worry about Apologize for, blame for, famous for Believe in, interested in, succeed in Take care of, instead of, be accused of Insist on, count on, concentrate on Keep from, prevent from, profit from In addition to, look forward to, be used to
An Infinitive Phrase is a group of words consisting of an infinitive and followed most often by modifiers, direct objects, and/or prepositional phrases. We intended to leave early. The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the verb intended. to leave (infinitive) early (adverb) I have a paper to write before class. The infinitive phrase functions as an adjective modifying paper. to write (infinitive) before class (prepositional phrase) Phil agreed to give me a ride. The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the verb agreed. to give (infinitive) me (indirect object of the infinitive) a ride (direct object of the infinitive)
Infinitive forms are not used after the following verbs of perception: feel see hear smell
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