2Only Gerund is used With the verbs and verbal phrases: to avoid to recall/ to recollectto burst out to resentto deny to practiseto enjoy to riskto excuse to suggest !!!to fancy (in exclamation & surprise)to finishto forgiveto give up/to leave offto go on/to keep onto mind (in negative & interrogative sentences)to postpone/to put offcannot (can’t) help !!!to considerto includeto escapeto involve
3With the verbs and verbal phrases used with prepositions: to like the idea of to suspect ofto accuse of/to blame smb for to persist into agree to to prevent from/to stop fromto approve of to rely onto complain of to result into apologize for to suspend smb ofto forgive for to speak ofto congratulate on to thank forto count on to think ofto depend on to look forward toto hear ofto inform ofto insist onto feel like, to look liketo succeed into object to
4With the following word combinations: to be afraid of to be sure ofto be angry for to be surprised atto be aware of to be worried aboutto be bored with to be worthto be busy to be responsible forto be capable of to be no use/no goodto be clever at/to be good at to be used to/accustomed toto be disappointed atto be engaged into be fond of/to be keen on/to be interested into be guilty ofto be pleased (displeased) atto be grateful forcan’t standto have difficulty into be proud ofto be slow atto be sorry for
5Gerund is used with noun+preposition art of reason forchance of right ofdifficulty in sense ofexperience in skill inhabit of way ofidea ofimportance ofinterest inmeans ofmistake ofopportunity ofplan forpoint inpreparation forprocess ofpurpose of
6Gerund is used with the following prepositions afterbeforebesidesinstead ofin spite of/despiteonwithoutbyat
7Gerund + Infinitive can be used to be afraid*to beginto ceaseto continuecan (cannot) affordto dread/to fear * NOTE: verb + inf = it’s a good idea,to forget* a special occasionto hate* verb + ger = a general statementto intend e.g. The child was not afraid of remaining alone,to like (dislike)*/to enjoy* but that night he was afraid to stay alone on such ato neglect stormy night.to prefer*to proposeto remember/to recollectto startto stop
8Change of meaningSome verbs used either with an infinitive or a gerund can have different meanings!to stopto remember/to forgetto like/to love/to hate/ to preferto dread/to regretto be afraidto advise/to intend/to recommendcannot bearto meanto tryto go onto understand
9EXAMPLES Verb + Inf Verb + Ger 1.Stop + inf = to make a break, pause in order to do smthShe stopped to chat with her pals.***2.Remember + inf = remember what one has to do, the dutyRemember to lock the door.3.Forget + inf = forget to do smthDon’t forget to post my letter!4.Mean + inf = to intendHe means to move to New Castle.1.Stop + ger = to cease the action from continuationHe stopped speaking and looked at us in surprise.2.Remember + ger = remember what has happenedI’ll always remember seeing you in class.3.Forget + ger = forget a past eventI’ll never forget swimming in the Dead Sea.4.Mean + ger = to cause/entailThis meant purchasing new equipment.
105.Go on + inf = stop doing smth & start doing smth else After he had learnt Hungarian, he went on to learn Spanish.***6.Try + inf = attemptShe tried hard to cope with her new job.7.Regret + inf = to be sorry toWe regret to inform you that your flight has been delayed.8.Hate + inf = hate what one is about to doI hate to interrupt you, but I must talk to you.5.Go on + ger = continue to do smthThe orchestra went on playing while the Titanic was sinking.6.Try + ger = experimentTry eating often but very little at a time.7.Regret + ger = to feel sorry for the past eventI regret telling her a lie.8.Hate + ger = feel sorry for what one is doingI hate making you feel embarrassed.
11Forms of the Infinitive Forms of the –ing formActive VoicePassive VoicePresentPresent ContPerfectPerfect Cont(to) repair(to) be repairing(to) have repaired(to) have been repairing(to) be repaired____________(to) have been repairedActive VoicePassive Voicerepairing_______________having repaired______________being repairedhaving been repaired