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Presentation on theme: "INFINITIVE vs GERUND."— Presentation transcript:


2 Only Gerund is used With the verbs and verbal phrases:
to avoid to recall/ to recollect to burst out to resent to deny to practise to enjoy to risk to excuse to suggest !!! to fancy (in exclamation & surprise) to finish to forgive to give up/to leave off to go on/to keep on to mind (in negative & interrogative sentences) to postpone/to put off cannot (can’t) help !!! to consider to include to escape to involve

3 With the verbs and verbal phrases used with prepositions:
to like the idea of to suspect of to accuse of/to blame smb for to persist in to agree to to prevent from/to stop from to approve of to rely on to complain of to result in to apologize for to suspend smb of to forgive for to speak of to congratulate on to thank for to count on to think of to depend on to look forward to to hear of to inform of to insist on to feel like, to look like to succeed in to object to

4 With the following word combinations:
to be afraid of to be sure of to be angry for to be surprised at to be aware of to be worried about to be bored with to be worth to be busy to be responsible for to be capable of to be no use/no good to be clever at/to be good at to be used to/accustomed to to be disappointed at to be engaged in to be fond of/to be keen on/to be interested in to be guilty of to be pleased (displeased) at to be grateful for can’t stand to have difficulty in to be proud of to be slow at to be sorry for

5 Gerund is used with noun+preposition
art of reason for chance of right of difficulty in sense of experience in skill in habit of way of idea of importance of interest in means of mistake of opportunity of plan for point in preparation for process of purpose of

6 Gerund is used with the following prepositions
after before besides instead of in spite of/despite on without by at

7 Gerund + Infinitive can be used
to be afraid* to begin to cease to continue can (cannot) afford to dread/to fear * NOTE: verb + inf = it’s a good idea, to forget* a special occasion to hate* verb + ger = a general statement to intend e.g. The child was not afraid of remaining alone, to like (dislike)*/to enjoy* but that night he was afraid to stay alone on such a to neglect stormy night. to prefer* to propose to remember/to recollect to start to stop

8 Change of meaning Some verbs used either with an infinitive or a gerund can have different meanings! to stop to remember/to forget to like/to love/to hate/ to prefer to dread/to regret to be afraid to advise/to intend/to recommend cannot bear to mean to try to go on to understand

9 EXAMPLES Verb + Inf Verb + Ger
1.Stop + inf = to make a break, pause in order to do smth She stopped to chat with her pals. *** 2.Remember + inf = remember what one has to do, the duty Remember to lock the door. 3.Forget + inf = forget to do smth Don’t forget to post my letter! 4.Mean + inf = to intend He means to move to New Castle. 1.Stop + ger = to cease the action from continuation He stopped speaking and looked at us in surprise. 2.Remember + ger = remember what has happened I’ll always remember seeing you in class. 3.Forget + ger = forget a past event I’ll never forget swimming in the Dead Sea. 4.Mean + ger = to cause/entail This meant purchasing new equipment.

10 5.Go on + inf = stop doing smth & start doing smth else
After he had learnt Hungarian, he went on to learn Spanish. *** 6.Try + inf = attempt She tried hard to cope with her new job. 7.Regret + inf = to be sorry to We regret to inform you that your flight has been delayed. 8.Hate + inf = hate what one is about to do I hate to interrupt you, but I must talk to you. 5.Go on + ger = continue to do smth The orchestra went on playing while the Titanic was sinking. 6.Try + ger = experiment Try eating often but very little at a time. 7.Regret + ger = to feel sorry for the past event I regret telling her a lie. 8.Hate + ger = feel sorry for what one is doing I hate making you feel embarrassed.

11 Forms of the Infinitive
Forms of the –ing form Active Voice Passive Voice Present Present Cont Perfect Perfect Cont (to) repair (to) be repairing (to) have repaired (to) have been repairing (to) be repaired ____________ (to) have been repaired Active Voice Passive Voice repairing _______________ having repaired ______________ being repaired having been repaired

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