Presentation on theme: "Gerunds and Infinitives. Gerunds A gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing and functions as a noun. However, since a gerund functions as a noun, it occupies."— Presentation transcript:
Gerunds A gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing and functions as a noun. However, since a gerund functions as a noun, it occupies some positions in a sentence that a noun ordinarily would, for example: subject, direct object, subject complement, and object of preposition.
As a subject Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences. The study abroad program might satisfy your desire for new experiences. (The gerund has been removed.)
As a direct object They do not appreciate my singing. They do not appreciate my assistance. (The gerund has been removed)
As object of preposition The police arrested him for speeding. The police arrested him for criminal activity. (The gerund has been removed.)
After verb forms My cat's favorite activity is sleeping. My cat's favorite food is salmon. (The gerund has been removed.)
Verbs Can’t help Can’t stand Feel like It’s no use Be/get used to Look forward to Spend (time) Don’t mine/would mine
Infinitives An infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word to plus a verb (in its simplest "stem" form) and functioning as a noun, adjective, or adverb. However, the infinitive may function as a subject, direct object, subject complement, adjective, or adverb in a sentence.
As a subject To wait seemed foolish when decisive action was required. To leave now would be a mistake.
As an indirect object After verbs like: Advice Invite Tell Warn Teach Persuade She persuade me to join the team.
After some adjectives Busy Happy Ready Tired … I’m too tired to go out.
After some adverbs Slowly Fast Low High … He ran to slowly to win the race.
After some verbs Agree Appear Seem Choose Decide Expect Hope Learn Manage Plan Promise Refuse Want Wish Did you manage to finish your project on time?
Without to Some verbs of perception (hear, feel, see, let, make…) go with the infinitive but without to: I saw Jim leave the office. My parents don’t let me stay out late.
Gerunde or Infinitive? In verbs like begin, propose, forbbid, intend or start, it doesn’t matter if you put gerunde or infintive. I started to use/using the Internet about two years ago.
Gerunde or Infinitive? Stop + Gerunde = Stop a habit My father stopped smoking last month. Stop + Infinitive = Interrupt an action Can we stop to have some coffee? Remember + Gerunde = Something in the past I don’t remember talking to her before. Remember + Infinitive = Important things in the future Remember to call Jane before you go.
Gerunde or Infinitive? Regret + Gerunde = Lament/be sorry for something in the past. He regrets breaking up with Helen. Regret + Infinitive = Bad news. I regret to tell you that we can’t accept your proposal. Forget + Gerunde = Negative clauses. I will never forget visiting Pisa. Forget + Infinitive = Forget to do something. I forgot to tell you.