2 Verb + ing form is used: 1) as a noun A - as the subject of a verb • Smoking is bad for you B - as the object of a verb • I love swimming C - after prepositions • I like a hot drink before going to bed. •On hearing the news, she fainted. •He passed the exam without doing any work.
3 hate* = not stand* = not bear* 2) Gerunds are also used after certain verbs. If a verb follows verbs from the list below, the second one is gerund (verb+ing). [ The verbs with an asterisk(*) can also be followed by an infinitive-see page 409.]admithate* = not stand* = not bear*practiseavoidimagineput offbegin*intend*quitconsiderkeep (on)recommendcontinue*like*regretdelaylove*remember*denymentionstart*dislikemindstop*enjoymisssuggestfinishpostponetry*
4 3) Gerunds are also used after certain expressions 3) Gerunds are also used after certain expressions. • It isn’t worth losing sleep over. • It’s worth thinking about. • It’s no use/good crying over spilt milk. • There was no point (in) waiting, so we left. • It’s useless sitting here and thinking about it. • It’s no good complaining to him. He won’t help you. • It’s a waste of money going first class. • It’s a waste of time watching TV. • We had difficulty (in) finding a hotel.
5 4) We use go + gerund for a number of activities, especially sports 4) We use go + gerund for a number of activities, especially sports BUT:go swimming – go ridding – go skiing – go sailing – go divinggo snorkeling – go skating – go jogging – go climbinggo – fishing – go sightseeing – go shoppingdo sports – do exercise – do yogado aerobics – play basketball/football
6 5) Be / get used to + gerund - Be used to means be accustomed to 5) Be / get used to + gerund - Be used to means be accustomed to. We use be used to + gerund to talk about a habit formed from experience. • I’m used to getting up early. I’ve been doing it for years.[be used to +gerund] • I’m used to hard work. [be used to + noun phrase] • Jake found the new course difficult. He wasn’t used to styding so hard. - Get used to means become accustomed to. We use get used to + gerund to talk about the process until we are used to something. • When Ann moved to England. It took her a long time to get used to driving on the left-hand side of the road. But now she is used to it. • Our new flat is quite far from my school. I hope I’ll get used to getting up earlier in the morning so I can get there on time.
7 6) I have got used to (doing) something 6) I have got used to (doing) something. = I am used to (doing) something. Be / get used to can be followed by other noun constructions: • He’s used to the house. [noun] • He’s used to it. [pronoun] • He’s used to the new house that he bought. [noun + relative clause] • You’ll get used to your new job. [noun phrase]
8 7) BE CAREFUL! Do not confuse be used to + gerund with used to base form. •I am used to living in a small town. I wouldn’t like to live in a city. [I am accustomed to it.] Compare to: •I used to live in a small town. Now I live in a city. [In the past I lived…] •Are you used to living in a small town?- Yes I am. Compare to: •Did you use to live in a small town?- Yes, I did. REMEMBER: With do / does / did we use the base form use to.