Presentation on theme: "A. General B. Functions C. Determiners and Possesives with Gerund D. Important notes E. Verbs followed by gerunds F. Verbs followed by either gerunds or."— Presentation transcript:
A. General B. Functions C. Determiners and Possesives with Gerund D. Important notes E. Verbs followed by gerunds F. Verbs followed by either gerunds or infinitives G. Adverbs in gerund phrase
A. GENERAL 1. Ordinary form : V + ing 2. Perfect form : having + V 3 /V ed 3. Active Gerund : V + ing 4. Passive Gerund : being + V 3 /V ed having been + V 3 /V ed 5. Affirmative Gerund : V + ing 6. Negative Gerund : not + V + ing not + having + V 3 /V ed
B. Functions Gerunds may perform all the functions that nouns do
B. Functions 1. Subject of verb : Ex : Her cleaning the house is necessary. 2. Object of verb : Ex : He dislikes her coming late every time. 3. Object of preposition : Ex : My mother insists on my studying hard everyday.
B. Functions 4. Complement of verb : Ex : Her favorite activity is playing football. 5. Appositive : Ex : He only focuses on one thing – his earning money.
C. Determiners and Possesives with Gerund 1. Determiner+Gerund Theopening of Parliament Akilling of a living creature 2. Possessive form+Gerund Hisbuying the house Her mother ‘ s telling off her
D. Important notes 1. The Gerund phrase is the subject possessive form, esp possessive adj Ex : Your loving her is such a stupid thing. 2. The Gerund Phrase is the object object pronoun, just noun Ex : We can’t understand Ex : He never approve of his daughter his behaving like that.( formal ) ‘ s loving a man like him.( formal ) him( informal )
D. Important notes 3. Person being talked about is clear don’t use possessive adj Ex : Thank you for helping me. Ex : I’m sorry for waiting you up. your my
D. Important notes 4. subject of a gerund phrase refers to a lifeless thing / an abstract idea usually don’t use the possessive form Ex : They told us a story of an old ship having been sunk in Pacific Ocean. Ex : Instead of her health improving after the operation, it got worse. However, sometimes we can use the possessive form Ex : I can’t understand the door’s not being open.
D. Important notes 5. There is more than one noun before gerund don’t use possessive form. Ex : They don’t approve of Peter and Mary getting married. Ex : I never agree with his and his friend cheating in the exam. Ex : His and her beaking up was really a surprise.
D. Important notes 6. A noun before gerund that is modified by a phrase don’t use possessive form Ex : We don’t need the president of the company attending the meeting. Ex : He can’t bear the thought of his best friend, once so rich and handsome, being destitute now.
D. Important notes 7. In gerund phrase derived from sentences beginning with expletives such as “it” and “there” use “it” or “its” and “there” Ex : In spite of being a rainy night, he went there alone. it its Ex : We were mistaken about there being a meeting tonight.
D. Important notes 8. Gerunds refer to activities in general way uncount nouns can’t be used with numbers 9. A noun having a similar meaning to a gerund noun is preferred infinitive to arrive to depart to discuss -ing form arriving departing discussing noun arrival departure discussion Ex : We are looking forward to your.arrivingarrival
D. Important notes 10. Gerund with an article can’t have a direct object use an “of” structure after gerund Ex : Learning a foreign language is very interesting. The learning of a foreign language is very interesting.
E. Verb followed by gerunds admit advoid deny finish miss practice recall resent risk dislike discuss imagine involve appreciate consider delay enjoy mind postpone quit report resume suggest understand mention can’t help
F. Verb followed by either gerunds or infinitives 1. No change in meaning begin hate love cease intend continue dread like prefer start can’t bear can’t stand
F. Verb followed by either gerunds or infinitives 2. Difference in meaning regret + to inf (tell,say,inform) + Ving forget +to inf +Ving (negative) stop + Ving quit +to inf stop to do another action
F. Verb followed by either gerunds or infinitives remember +to inf have to do sth +Ving in the past propose + to inf intention + Ving suggestion try + to inf do one’s best + Ving do sth 1 st time 2. Difference in meaning
G. Adverbs in gerund phrase In a gerund phrase, adverbs may remain unchanged or take adj form Ex : They were shocked at his completely beating his opponent. Ex : They were shocked at his complete beating his opponent. Ex : They were shocked at his beating his opponent completely.