Presentation on theme: "Genetic Engineering DNA technology. Palindromes mom wow race car straw warts never odd or even stella won no wallets was it a car or a cat."— Presentation transcript:
Palindromes mom wow race car straw warts never odd or even stella won no wallets was it a car or a cat I saw eva can I stab bats in a cave
Palindromic DNA sequences GAATTC CTTAAG The complementary strand reads the same backwards as the original strand reads forwards
What does this have to do with genetic engineering? Restriction Endonucleases = DNA Scissors These are enzymes that scientists use in genetic engineering The enzyme recognizes a site on the DNA which is made of 4 to 6 bases. The enzyme will cut DNA at these recognition sites. These recognition sites are palindromes. Cutting DNA at recognition sites is the first step in many types of DNA technology
These restriction endonucleases have been used to: Create recombinant DNA (The combination of DNA from two or more organisms) DNA fingerprinting Splice genes from one organism into another
Making a cloning vector 1. A bacterial plasmid (circular DNA) is used as one source of DNA and the second source can be from any other organism. 2. The 2 DNAs are cut at the palindromes. Both molecules become linear DNA with “sticky ends” 2. The two are mixed and the complementary sticky ends base pair with each other – creating a circle. 3. This genetically altered plasmid is put into a bacteria cell where it reproduces the protein that the DNA sequences for. Example: insulin
DNA Fingerprinting 1. Restriction endonucleases are used to cut DNA in several places. 2. The segments are then separated by a process called electrophoresis 3. Once the DNA fragments are separated each person (except identical twins) has a unique banding pattern and can be identified. 4. This technique is also used to determine how closely related different species are.
More Genetic Engineering…. Human Genome Project Gene Therapy Genetically engineered vaccines Genetically modified foods (GMOs) Cloning organs or whole organisms
Ethical Considerations You decide… Just because we can does it mean we should?