Presentation on theme: "Connect! Did you get a swine flu vaccination? What is a vaccination?"— Presentation transcript:
Connect! Did you get a swine flu vaccination? What is a vaccination?
Vaccinations Weakened or dead microbes (or even parts) still have the antigens present on their membranes, and thus stimulate the immune system to react.
Antibodies and white blood cells attack (after shape recognition), then memory cells remain for years.
The second response is much faster than the first because of the memory cells, so usually the invader is wiped out before any symptoms develop.
Vaccine Preparation Obtain pathogen Treat pathogen to kill or weaken it Inject altered pathogen (vaccine) into organism Body responds to antigens present by making antibodies and having white blood cells attack invader Some white blood cells specific for the pathogen remain in the body for a long time to continue the protection from future attacks by the pathogen
Cancer Certain genetic mutations can result in uncontrolled cell division called cancer Exposing cells to certain chemicals and radiation increases mutations and increases risk of cancer Immune system recognizes cancer cells by abnormal proteins on cell surfaces, and tries to destroy the cancer cells
Chunk! What is a vaccine made of? How does a vaccine work? Why is the second response to a pathogen faster than the first? What are memory cells? How is a vaccine prepared? What is uncontrolled cell division? How do immune cells recognize cancer cells?
Immune System Problems 1.Stress and Disease The immune system may weaken due to age, stress, fatigue, or viral diseases. Some viral diseases, such as AIDS, attack the immune system itself, leaving the body unable to deal with infections and cancer cells. People with AIDS often die of infections that a healthy immune system would easily destroy.
2. Allergies In some people, the immune system may react to environmental substances (food, pollen, insect toxins) that are normally harmless. These people have an allergy. The immune system reacts by releasing chemicals called histamines, which can cause runny nose, sneezing, rashes and swelling. Antihistamines reduce efficiency of histamines and symptoms.
3. Autoimmune Disorders Sometimes the immune system may attack some of the body’s own cells, not recognizing the antigens as self. One type of diabetes results when the immune system attacks and destroys the pancreas cells that make insulin. Rheumatoid arthritis results when the immune system attacks and destroys connective tissue such as tendons, ligaments and bone.
4. Transplant Problems Transplanted organs have foreign antigens on their cells because they come from another person. Immune system recognizes antigens as foreign and attacks, causing rejection. Transplant patients take drugs to reduce the effectiveness of their immune system, but as a result, may become ill from a pathogen that normally would not be a threat.
Chunk! How does AIDS affect the body? What is an allergy? What are histamines, and antihistamines? What is an autoimmune disorder? Give an example. What causes transplant rejection? What is done to lessen rejection risk, and what effect does it have?