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2 What is a chronic disease? Persistent or long-lasting, opposite of acute Leading cause of mortality worldwide Nearly one in two Americans has a chronic medical condition Most common: high blood pressure, arthritis, respiratory diseases and high blood pressure Many young people experience chronic conditions: – Diabetes – Allergies – Asthma – Epilepsy

3 * A condition of the nervous system – affects 2.5 million Americans. People with epilepsy have seizures that are a bit like an electrical brainstorm. A seizure prevents the brain from processing incoming sensory signals and from controlling muscles. That is why people with epilepsy may fall down and twitch. Fairly common – occurs in about 1 in every 100 – 200 people.

4 * Can epilepsy be prevented? * Yes and No. Head injuries that result from sports or other accidents can cause epilepsy, but they are often preventable. How? * Helmets * Safety belts * Hard hats * Safety measures – common sense * Epilepsy can also occur without injury or can be hereditary. Researchers are still exploring the reasons why some people have epilepsy. At least half of those with epilepsy never experienced a head injury

5 * Other causes of Epilepsy: * Brain tumor * Stroke * Arteriosclerosis * Infection (meningitis or encephalitis) * What can I do to reduce the risk of seizures: * Take prescribed medication * Get enough sleep * Avoid unusual stress * Eat a well-balanced diet * Maintain correct weight * See your doctor * Keep immunizations up to date.

6 Famous People with Epilepsy Julius Caesar George Frederick Handel Peter the Great Napoleon Bonaparte Vincent van Gogh Lord Byron Also: Susan Boyle and Prince

7 Effects of an Allergic Response Most of the time your immune system fights germs and bacteria to help you stay healthy. If you have allergies, the immune system treats allergens (such as pollen) as if they are invading the body.

8 What Causes Allergies? Common allergens:  drugs  dust  food  insect bites  mold  pet dander  pollen

9 What are Symptoms of Allergies? Symptoms Breathing problems (coughing, shortness of breath) Burning, tearing, or itchy eyes Headache Hives Runny nose Wheezing

10 How a Person is Tested for Allergies Skin testing is the most common method of allergy testing. One type of skin testing is the prick test. Skin is pricked with a small amount of the suspected allergen. The site is closely monitored to see if a reaction occurs. Blood tests are also used to measure levels of allergy-related substances.

11 Allergies Treatment – Medications used to treat allergies: Antihistamines Corticosteroids Decongestants – Allergy shots are sometimes recommended if you cannot avoid the allergen and your symptoms are hard to control.

12 Prevention of Allergies  Breastfeeding children for at least 4 months or more may help prevent a cow’s milk allergy and wheezing in early childhood.  Once allergies have developed, treating the allergies and carefully avoiding allergy triggers can prevent reactions in the future.

13 Asthma and Allergies People who have certain kinds of allergies are more likely to have asthma. Allergies that affect the nose and eyes – typically pollen or dust – can also trigger asthma symptoms. Not everyone who has allergies gets asthma. Not all asthma happens because of allergies. About 3 of 4 kids have asthma symptoms triggered by an allergy.

14 Asthma (continued) People with asthma experience problems with their airways – the breathing tubes in their lungs. Airways become swollen and full of mucus. Asthma is the nation’s fastest-growing chronic disease. Rates among children under four have more than doubled in the last 20 years. African-American children are five times more likely to die from asthma than Caucasians. Asthma = one of the leading causes of school absenteeism

15 Asthma Triggers ◦ Triggers do not cause asthma, but lead to flare-ups. ◦ People with asthma experience different triggers ◦ What are common triggers?  Air pollution  Smoke (first, second and third-hand smoke)  Exercise  Allergens cause allergic reactions. Examples: mold, dust mites, cockroaches, pollen, animal dander, feathers  Cold/flu  Weather (wind stirring up mold and pollen)

16 Asthma How can asthma be controlled? ◦ Become an advocate for clean air ◦ Reduce exposure to air pollution ◦ Watch for the weather reports ◦ Keep your room clean and free of dust ◦ Wash your sheets weekly in hot water ◦ Keep any pets out of your room ◦ Stay away from freshly cut grass and leaf piles ◦ Keep your medication with you at all times

17  Disease in which there are high levels of sugar in the blood.  Type I diabetes can occur at any age; most often diagnosed in children, teens young adults.  In this disease, the body makes little or no insulin  Daily injections of insulin are required  The exact cause is unknown

18  Type 2 diabetes makes up most of the diabetes cases. ◦ Occurs mostly in adulthood, but teens/young adults are being diagnosed with it because of high obesity rates. ◦ Many people with Type 2 diabetes do not know they have it.

19  Symptoms ◦ Blurry vision ◦ Excessive thirst ◦ Fatigue ◦ Frequent urination ◦ Hunger ◦ Weight loss

20  Prognosis ◦ Better control of  blood sugar  cholesterol  blood pressure levels ◦ Helps reduce the risk of  kidney disease  eye disease  nervous system disease  heart attack  stroke

21  Complications ◦ Heart disease and stroke ◦ High blood pressure ◦ Blindness ◦ Kidney disease ◦ Nervous system disease ◦ Amputation  More than 60% of non-traumatic lower-limb amputations occur in people with diabetes.

22 o There is no way to prevent Type 1. o Prevention of the onset of Type 2: o Keep an ideal body weight o Exercise

23 Keeping an Ideal Body Weight Who is responsible for your weight? Some interesting statistics: – Each day, 1 in 4 Americans visit a fast food restaurant. – You would have to walk for seven hours to burn off a Super-Sized Coke, fries and Big Mac – 60 percent of all adult Americans are either overweight or obese

24  When you compare the different diseases we have discussed today, what are the most common steps to prevention?


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