2 Chapter Outline Linking Theory and Analysis Qualitative Data ProcessingComputer Programs for Qualitative DataThe Qualitative Analysis of Quantitative DataEvaluating the Quality of Qualitative ResearchEthics and Qualitative Data AnalysisQuick Quiz
3 Qualitative analysis – The non-numerical examination and interpretation of observations, for the purpose of discovering underlying meanings and patterns of relationship.
4 Linking Theory and Analysis Discovering PatternsFrequenciesMagnitudesStructuresProcessesCausesConsequences
5 Cross-case analysis – An analysis that involves an examination of more than one case; this can be either a variable-oriented or case-oriented analysis.Variable-oriented analysis – An analysis that describes and/or explains a particular variable.Case-oriented analysis – An analysis that aims to understand a particular case or several cases by looking closely at the details of each.
6 Grounded Theory Method (GTM) – An inductive approach to research in which theories are generated solely from an examination of data rather than being derived deductively.Constant Comparative Method – A component of the Grounded Theory Method in which observations are compared with one another and with the evolving inductive theory.
7 Four Stages of Constant Comparative Method (Glaser and Strauss): Comparing incident application to each categoryIntegrating categories and their propertiesDelimiting the theoryWriting theory
8 Semiotics – The study of signs and the meanings associated with them, “the science of signs.” What is the meaning of:…a blue ribbon?…”say cheese”?…a cross?…a horseshoe?
9 Conversation Analysis – A meticulous analysis of the details of conversation, based on a complete transcript that includes pauses, hems and haws.
10 Fundamental Assumptions Conversation is a socially constructed activity.Conversations must be understood contextually.Conversational analysis aims to understand the structure and meaning of conversation through excruciatingly accurate transcripts of conversations.
11 Qualitative Data Processing Coding – Classifying or categorizing individual pieces of data, coupled with some kind of retrieval system.Coding UnitsCoding as a Physical Act
12 Creating CodesOpen Coding – the initial classification and labeling of concepts in qualitative data analysis.Axial coding – a reanalysis of the results of open coding in the GTM, aimed at identifying the important, general concepts.Selective coding – in GTM, this builds on the results of open coding and axial coding to identify the central concept that organizes the other concepts that have been identified in a body of textual materials.
13 Memoing – Writing memos that become part of the data for analysis in qualitative research such as grounded theory. Memos may describe and define concepts, deal with methodologies issues, or offer initial theoretical formulations.Code NotesTheoretical NotesOperational Notes
14 Concept Mapping – The graphic display of concepts and their interrelations, useful in the formulation of theory.
19 Evaluating the Quality of Qualitative Research ValidityReliability
20 Questions/Assessments for Evaluating Qualitative Research How credible are the findings?How has knowledge or understanding been extended by the research?How well does the evaluation address its original aims and purpose?How well is the scope for drawing wider inferences explained?How clear is the basis of evaluative appraisal?How defensible is the research design?How well defended are the same design/target selection of cases/documents?
21 How well is the eventual sample composition and coverage described? How well was the data collection carried out?How well has the approach to, and formulation of, analysis been conveyed?How well are the contexts of data sources retained and portrayed?How well has diversity of perspective and content been explored?How well has detail, depth, and complexity of the data been conveyed?
22 How clear are the links between data, interpretation, and conclusions? How clear and coherent is the reporting?How clear are the assumptions/theoretical perspectives/values that have shaped the form and output of the evaluation?What evidence is there of attention to ethical issues?How adequately has the research process been documented?
24 1. _____ is an analysis that aims to understand a particular case of several cases by looking closely at the details of each.Variable-oriented analysisCase-oriented analysisExperimentationField research
25 Answer: B. Case-oriented analysis is an analysis that aims to understand a particular case of several cases by looking closely at the details of each.
26 2. _____ is an inductive approach to research in which theories are generated solely from an examination of data rather than being derived deductively.Cross-case analysisGrounded Theory MethodConstant comparative methodMonitoring studies
27 Answer: B. Grounded Theory Method is an inductive approach to research in which theories are generated solely from an examination of data rather than being derived deductively.
28 3. The key process in the analysis of qualitative social research is predicting.analyzing.writing.coding.
29 Answer: D. The key process in the analysis of qualitative social research is coding.
30 4. Methods for examining social research data without converting them to numerical format are referred to asfeminist research.quantitative research.qualitative research.
31 Answer: C. Methods for examining social research data without converting them to numerical format are referred to as qualitative research.
32 5. Which of the following are different ways a researcher may look for patterns in a particular research topic?frequenciesmagnitudesstructuresall of the above
33 Answer: D. A researcher may look for patterns in a particular research topic in the following ways: frequencies, magnitudes, and structures.
34 6. _____ is an analysis that describes and/or explains a particular variable. Variable-oriented analysisCase-oriented analysisExperimentationField research
35 Answer: A. Variable-oriented analysis is an analysis that describes and/or explains a particular variable.
36 7. _____ is a component of the GTM in which observations are compared with one another and with the evolving inductive theory.Cross-case analysisGrounded Theory MethodConstant comparative methodMonitoring studies
37 Answer: C. Constant comparative method is a component of the GTM in which observations are compared with one another and with the evolving inductive theory.
38 8. _____ is commonly defined as the science of signs and has to do with symbols and meanings. KinesicsSemioticsGraphologyMonitoring
39 Answer: B. Semiotics is commonly defined as the science of signs and has to do with symbols and meanings.
40 9. In _____ coding, codes are suggested by the research’s examination. openaxialselective
41 Answer: A. In open coding, codes are suggested by the researcher’s examination.