Presentation on theme: "Collecting and Analyzing Data – Part 2 Qualitative Methods Week 3 Day 2 DIE 4564 Research Methods."— Presentation transcript:
Collecting and Analyzing Data – Part 2 Qualitative Methods Week 3 Day 2 DIE 4564 Research Methods
Conducting Qualitative Field Research Preparing for the Field Be familiar with relevant research Discuss your plans with others in the area Identify and meet informants (when appropriate) First impressions are important Establish rapport (an open and trusting relationship) Ethical considerations
Conducting Qualitative Field Research Establishing Rapport Rapport – an open and trusting relationship, especially important in qualitative research, between researchers and the people they’re observing.
Conducting Qualitative Field Research Qualitative Interview – contrasted with survey interviewing, the qualitative interview is based on a set of topics to be discussed in depth rather than based on the use of standardized questions.
Conducting Qualitative Field Research Stages in Complete Interviewing Process 1. Thematizing 2. Designing 3. Interviewing 4. Transcribing 5. Analyzing 6. Verifying 7. Reporting
Conducting Qualitative Field Research Focus Group – a group of subjects interviewed together, prompting a discussion. Advantages: real-life data, flexible, high degree of face validity, fast, inexpensive Disadvantages: not representative, little interviewer control, difficult analysis, interviewer/moderator skills, difficult logistically
Conducting Qualitative Field Research Recording Observations Take detailed notes, but balance with observations Rewrite notes with observations soon after observations with filled in details Record everything Look for themes Coding for key phrases or concepts
Review Question Unlike a survey, a ________ is an interaction between an interviewer and a single respondent.
Review Question Unlike a survey, a qualitative interview is an interaction between an interviewer and a single respondent.
Strengths and Weaknesses of Qualitative Field Research Strengths of Qualitative Field Research Effective for studying subtle nuances in attitudes and behaviors and social processes over time Flexibility Inexpensive
Strengths and Weaknesses of Qualitative Field Research Weaknesses of Qualitative Field Research No appropriate statistical analyses
Strengths and Weaknesses of Qualitative Field Research Validity Greater validity than survey and experimental measurements Reliability Potential problems with reliability
Review Question The more personal nature of field research tends to diminish its _______.
Review Question The more personal nature of field research tends to diminish its reliability.
Review question In comparison to surveys and experiments, field research has A. high validity and high reliability. B. high validity and low reliability. C. low validity and high reliability. D. low validity and low reliability.
Review question ANSWER: B. In comparison to surveys and experiments, field research has high validity and low reliability.
Review question _____ describes when the subject of social research may react to being studied, thus altering their behavior from what it would have been normally. A. Reactivity B. Sensitivity C. Hyperactivity D. Validity
Review question ANSWER: A. Reactivity describes when the subject of social research may react to being studied, thus altering their behavior from what it would have been normally.
Review Question In a _____, typically people are brought together to engage in a guided discussion on some topic. A. classroom B. focus group C. micro study D. institution
Review Question ANSWER: B. In a focus group, typically people are brought together to engage in a guided discussion on some topic.
Unobtrusive Research Types of Unobtrusive Research 1. Content Analysis 2. Analysis of Existing Statistics 3. Comparative and Historical Analysis
Content Analysis Content Analysis – the study of recorded human communications (i.e., books, websites, paintings, laws). Topics Appropriate for Content Analysis “Who says what, to whom, why, how, and with what effect?”
Content Analysis Sampling in Content Analysis Units of Analysis
Sampling in Content Analysis Identify the unit of analysis: You are interested in how children’s literature portrays gender roles related to food preparation. You are interested in popular film’s use of product placement of sweetened beverages. You are interested in the content of Internet Blogs related to “Thin-spiration” fostering inappropriate weight loss.
Content Analysis Coding in Content Analysis Coding – the process whereby raw data are transformed into a standardized form suitable for machine processing and analysis.
Content Analysis Coding in Content Analysis Manifest Content – the concrete terms contained in a communication – viable surface content.
Content Analysis Coding in Content Analysis Latent Content – the underlying meaning of communication.
Content Analysis Conceptualization and the Creation of Code Categories Operational Definition Levels of Measurement
Content Analysis Counting and Record Keeping The end product of coding must be numerical. Record keeping must distinguish between units of analysis and units of observation. Record from the base from which the counting is done. Relational analysis versus conceptual analysis
Content Analysis Counting and Record Keeping Tally sheets
Qualitative Data Analysis Tips to Avoid Errors o If there are sufficient cases, use random selection o Give at least three examples in support of each assertion o Have your analytic interpretations carefully reviewed by others o Report whatever inconsistencies you do discover
Content Analysis Strengths of Content Analysis Economy of time and money Allowing for the correction of errors Permits the study of processes occurring over time Research has little (if any) effect on subjects Reliability
Content Analysis Weaknesses of Content Analysis Limited to recorded communications Validity
Review Question In this technique, _________, the researcher goes beyond observing the frequency of a particular concept to examining relationships among concepts.
Review Question In this technique, relational analysis, the researcher goes beyond observing the frequency of a particular concept to examining relationships among concepts.
Analyzing Existing Statistics The analysis of existing statistics is not the same as secondary analysis. Secondary analysis is where you obtain permission to use someone else's database to undertake your own analysis. For example obtaining access to the Nurses Health Study database to apply a new way to analyze nutrient density. Existing statistics may be the main source of data or a supplemental source of data.
Analyzing Existing Statistics Sources of Existing Statistics Statistical Abstract of the United States Bureau of the Census Demographic Yearbook World Health Organization Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Review Question To overcome some validity problems, researchers can employ ________ by looking for multiple indicators of a concept. A. validation B. replication C. sampling D. logical reasoning
Analyzing Existing Statistics Review Question To overcome some validity problems, researchers can employ ________ by looking for multiple indicators of a concept. The correct answer is B. Researchers use replication to look for multiple indicators of a concept, thereby overcoming some validity problems.
Ethics and Unobtrusive Measures Sometimes even unobtrusive measures can raise the possibility of violating subjects’ privacy. The general principles of honest observation, analysis, and reporting apply to all research techniques.
Review Question Which of the following occurs when you obtain a copy of someone else’s data and undertake your own statistical analysis? A. using quasi official statistics B. using official statistics C. secondary analysis D. none of the above
Review Question Answer: C. Secondary analysis occurs when you obtain a copy of someone else’s data and undertake your own statistical analysis.
Review Question Which of the following is(are) a type(s) of unobtrusive research methods? A. content analysis B. analysis of existing statistics C. comparative and historical research D. all of the above
Review Question Answer: D. Content analysis, analysis of existing statistics, and comparative and historical research are types of unobtrusive research methods.
Qualitative Data Analysis Qualitative analysis – the non-numerical examination and interpretation of observations, for the purpose of discovering underlying meanings and patterns of relationship.
Linking Theory and Analysis Discovering Patterns Frequencies Magnitudes Structures Processes Causes Consequences
Linking Theory and Analysis Discovering Patterns Cross-case analysis – an analysis that involves an examination of more than one case; this can be either a variable-oriented or case-oriented analysis. Variable-oriented analysis – an analysis that describes and/or explains a particular variable. Case-oriented analysis – an analysis that aims to understand a particular case or several cases by looking closely at the details of each.
Qualitative Data Processing Concept Mapping – the graphic display of concepts and their interrelations, useful in the formulation of theory.
Qualitative Data Processing Concept Mapping
Evaluating the Quality of Qualitative Research Questions/Assessments for Evaluating Qualitative Research 1. How credible are the findings? 2. How has knowledge or understanding been extended by the research? 3. How well does the evaluation address its original aims and purpose? 4. How well is the scope for drawing wider inferences explained? 5. How clear is the basis of evaluative appraisal?
Evaluating the Quality of Qualitative Research Questions/Assessments for Evaluating Qualitative Research 6. How defensible is the research design? 7. How well defended are the same design/target selection of cases/documents? 8. How well is the eventual sample composition and coverage described? 9. How well was the data collection carried out? 10. How well has the approach to, and formulation of, analysis been conveyed?
Evaluating the Quality of Qualitative Research Questions/Assessments for Evaluating Qualitative Research 11. How well are the contexts of data sources retained and portrayed? 12. How well has diversity of perspective and content been explored? 13. How well has detail, depth, and complexity of the data been conveyed? 14. How clear are the links between data, interpretation, and conclusions?
Evaluating the Quality of Qualitative Research Questions/Assessments for Evaluating Qualitative Research 15. How clear and coherent is the reporting? 16. How clear are the assumptions/theoretical perspectives/values that have shaped the form and output of the evaluation? 17. What evidence is there of attention to ethical issues? 18. How adequately has the research process been documented?
Review Question Which of the following is(are) a way(s) a researcher may look for patterns in a particular research topic? A. frequencies B. magnitudes C. structures D. all of the above
Review Question Answer: D. A research may look for patterns in a particular research topic in the following ways: frequencies, magnitudes, and structures.