Presentation on theme: "Collecting and Analyzing Data – Part 2"— Presentation transcript:
1Collecting and Analyzing Data – Part 2 DIE 4564 Research MethodsCollecting and Analyzing Data – Part 2Qualitative MethodsWeek 3 Day 2
2Conducting Qualitative Field Research Preparing for the FieldBe familiar with relevant researchDiscuss your plans with others in the areaIdentify and meet informants (when appropriate)First impressions are importantEstablish rapport (an open and trusting relationship)Ethical considerations
3Conducting Qualitative Field Research Establishing RapportRapport – an open and trusting relationship, especially important in qualitative research, between researchers and the people they’re observing.
5Conducting Qualitative Field Research Qualitative Interview – contrasted with survey interviewing, the qualitative interview is based on a set of topics to be discussed in depth rather than based on the use of standardized questions.V. Conducting Qualitative Field ResearchA. Preparing for the field—before entering the field, it is important that the researcher learn as much as possible about the subjects that he or she will be studying. This may involve preliminary contacts with the subjects in which the purpose of the research can be clearly articulated.B. Qualitative interviewing—this is a form of in-depth interviewing in which the researcher has a general overview of what he or she would like to ask, but is less formal than a face-to-face interview in a survey. Its tone is much more conversational, though the researcher should guide the direction of the research. It is important that the subject is allowed to do most of the talking.C. Focus groups—this is similar to qualitative interviewing, except that the researcher is questioning several subjects simultaneously. Generally researchers seek to include certain types of people in the focus group.D. Recording observations—because field research involves direct observations, it is important that the researcher is able to record all pertinent observations. It is difficult to recall all that occurred, so field notes are typically used to record information,
6Conducting Qualitative Field Research Stages in Complete Interviewing ProcessThematizingDesigningInterviewingTranscribingAnalyzingVerifyingReporting
7Conducting Qualitative Field Research Focus Group – a group of subjects interviewed together, prompting a discussion.Advantages: real-life data, flexible, high degree of face validity, fast, inexpensiveDisadvantages: not representative, little interviewer control, difficult analysis, interviewer/moderator skills, difficult logistically
8Conducting Qualitative Field Research Recording ObservationsTake detailed notes, but balance with observationsRewrite notes with observations soon after observations with filled in detailsRecord everythingLook for themesCoding for key phrases or concepts
9Review QuestionUnlike a survey, a ________ is an interaction between an interviewer and a single respondent.
10Review QuestionUnlike a survey, a qualitative interview is an interaction between an interviewer and a single respondent.
11Strengths and Weaknesses of Qualitative Field Research Strengths of Qualitative Field ResearchEffective for studying subtle nuances in attitudes and behaviors and social processes over timeFlexibilityInexpensive
12Strengths and Weaknesses of Qualitative Field Research No appropriate statistical analyses
13Strengths and Weaknesses of Qualitative Field Research ValidityGreater validity than survey and experimental measurementsReliabilityPotential problems with reliability
14Review QuestionThe more personal nature of field research tends to diminish its _______.
15Review QuestionThe more personal nature of field research tends to diminish its reliability.
16Review questionIn comparison to surveys and experiments, field research has A. high validity and high reliability. B. high validity and low reliability. C. low validity and high reliability. D. low validity and low reliability.
17Review questionANSWER: B. In comparison to surveys and experiments, field research has high validity and low reliability.
18Review question_____ describes when the subject of social research may react to being studied, thus altering their behavior from what it would have been normally. A. Reactivity B. Sensitivity C. Hyperactivity D. Validity
19Review questionANSWER: A. Reactivity describes when the subject of social research may react to being studied, thus altering their behavior from what it would have been normally.
20Review QuestionIn a _____, typically people are brought together to engage in a guided discussion on some topic. A. classroom B. focus group C. micro study D. institution
21Review QuestionANSWER: B. In a focus group, typically people are brought together to engage in a guided discussion on some topic.
22Unobtrusive Research Unobtrusive Research Types of Unobtrusive ResearchContent AnalysisAnalysis of Existing StatisticsComparative and Historical Analysis
23Content AnalysisContent Analysis – the study of recorded human communications (i.e., books, websites, paintings, laws).Topics Appropriate for Content Analysis“Who says what, to whom, why, how, and with what effect?”
24Content AnalysisSampling in Content AnalysisUnits of Analysis
25Sampling in Content Analysis Identify the unit of analysis:You are interested in how children’s literature portrays gender roles related to food preparation.You are interested in popular film’s use of product placement of sweetened beverages.You are interested in the content of Internet Blogs related to “Thin-spiration” fostering inappropriate weight loss.
26Content Analysis Coding in Content Analysis Coding – the process whereby raw data are transformed into a standardized form suitable for machine processing and analysis.
27Content Analysis Coding in Content Analysis Manifest Content – the concrete terms contained in a communication – viable surface content.
28Content Analysis Coding in Content Analysis Latent Content – the underlying meaning of communication.
29Content Analysis Conceptualization and the Creation of Code Categories Operational DefinitionLevels of Measurement
30Content Analysis Counting and Record Keeping The end product of coding must be numerical.Record keeping must distinguish between units of analysis and units of observation.Record from the base from which the counting is done.Relational analysis versus conceptual analysis
31Content AnalysisCounting and Record KeepingTally sheets
32Qualitative Data Analysis Tips to Avoid ErrorsIf there are sufficient cases, use random selectionGive at least three examples in support of each assertionHave your analytic interpretations carefully reviewed by othersReport whatever inconsistencies you do discover
33Content Analysis Strengths of Content Analysis Economy of time and moneyAllowing for the correction of errorsPermits the study of processes occurring over timeResearch has little (if any) effect on subjectsReliability
34Content Analysis Weaknesses of Content Analysis Limited to recorded communicationsValidity
35Review QuestionIn this technique, _________, the researcher goes beyond observing the frequency of a particular concept to examining relationships among concepts.
36Review QuestionIn this technique, relational analysis, the researcher goes beyond observing the frequency of a particular concept to examining relationships among concepts.
37Analyzing Existing Statistics The analysis of existing statistics is not the same as secondary analysis.Secondary analysis is where you obtain permission to use someone else's database to undertake your own analysis. For example obtaining access to the Nurses Health Study database to apply a new way to analyze nutrient density.Existing statistics may be the main source of data or a supplemental source of data.
38Analyzing Existing Statistics Sources of Existing StatisticsStatistical Abstract of the United StatesBureau of the CensusDemographic YearbookWorld Health OrganizationCenters for Disease Control and Prevention
39Review QuestionTo overcome some validity problems, researchers can employ ________ by looking for multiple indicators of a concept.A. validationB. replicationC. samplingD. logical reasoning
40Analyzing Existing Statistics Review QuestionTo overcome some validity problems, researchers can employ ________ by looking for multiple indicators of a concept.The correct answer is B. Researchers use replication to look for multiple indicators of a concept, thereby overcoming some validity problems.
41Ethics and Unobtrusive Measures Sometimes even unobtrusive measures can raise the possibility of violating subjects’ privacy.The general principles of honest observation, analysis, and reporting apply to all research techniques.
42Review QuestionWhich of the following occurs when you obtain a copy of someone else’s data and undertake your own statistical analysis? A. using quasi official statistics B. using official statistics C. secondary analysis D. none of the above
43Review QuestionAnswer: C. Secondary analysis occurs when you obtain a copy of someone else’s data and undertake your own statistical analysis.
44Review QuestionWhich of the following is(are) a type(s) of unobtrusive research methods? A. content analysis B. analysis of existing statistics C. comparative and historical research D. all of the above
45Review QuestionAnswer: D. Content analysis, analysis of existing statistics, and comparative and historical research are types of unobtrusive research methods.
46Qualitative Data Analysis Qualitative analysis – the non-numerical examination and interpretation of observations, for the purpose of discovering underlying meanings and patterns of relationship.
47Linking Theory and Analysis Discovering PatternsFrequenciesMagnitudesStructuresProcessesCausesConsequences
48Linking Theory and Analysis Discovering PatternsCross-case analysis – an analysis that involves an examination of more than one case; this can be either a variable-oriented or case-oriented analysis.Variable-oriented analysis – an analysis that describes and/or explains a particular variable.Case-oriented analysis – an analysis that aims to understand a particular case or several cases by looking closely at the details of each.
49Qualitative Data Processing Concept Mapping – the graphic display of concepts and their interrelations, useful in the formulation of theory.
51Evaluating the Quality of Qualitative Research Questions/Assessments for Evaluating Qualitative ResearchHow credible are the findings?How has knowledge or understanding been extended by the research?How well does the evaluation address its original aims and purpose?How well is the scope for drawing wider inferences explained?How clear is the basis of evaluative appraisal?
52Evaluating the Quality of Qualitative Research Questions/Assessments for Evaluating Qualitative ResearchHow defensible is the research design?How well defended are the same design/target selection of cases/documents?How well is the eventual sample composition and coverage described?How well was the data collection carried out?How well has the approach to, and formulation of, analysis been conveyed?
53Evaluating the Quality of Qualitative Research Questions/Assessments for Evaluating Qualitative ResearchHow well are the contexts of data sources retained and portrayed?How well has diversity of perspective and content been explored?How well has detail, depth, and complexity of the data been conveyed?How clear are the links between data, interpretation, and conclusions?
54Evaluating the Quality of Qualitative Research Questions/Assessments for Evaluating Qualitative ResearchHow clear and coherent is the reporting?How clear are the assumptions/theoretical perspectives/values that have shaped the form and output of the evaluation?What evidence is there of attention to ethical issues?How adequately has the research process been documented?
55Review QuestionWhich of the following is(are) a way(s) a researcher may look for patterns in a particular research topic? A. frequencies B. magnitudes C. structures D. all of the above
56Review QuestionAnswer: D. A research may look for patterns in a particular research topic in the following ways: frequencies, magnitudes, and structures.