Presentation on theme: "Mother and Child Health: Research Methods G.J.Ebrahim Editor Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, Oxford University Press."— Presentation transcript:
Mother and Child Health: Research Methods G.J.Ebrahim Editor Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, Oxford University Press.
Qualitative Field Research Definition –A disciplined inquiry examining the personal meanings of individuals’ experiences and actions in the context of their social environment
Qualitative Field Research Qualitative because of the nature of the data collected, - detailed descriptions recorded by the investigator. Field research because the investigation is carried out in the usual environment where the phenomenon occurs. Disciplined because the inquiry is guided by methodological principles for problem definition, data collection and analysis, and theory formulation
Methodological Roots Phenomenology - different people experience the world in different ways. Symbolic interactionism - A social situation has meaning only in the way people define and interpret happenings and events. Ethnography - A study of the ‘World View” of different groups.
Sampling Convenience sampling - used when the group of interest is not easily accessible e.g. in ethnography Systematic non-probabilistic sampling - Informants are recruited because they are knowledgeable Theoretical sampling - A form of non- probabilistic sampling where the objective of developing an explanation or theory guides sampling and data collection
Methods of Qualitative Research Participant Observation In-depth Interview Group Interviews Focus Groups
Data Collection and Analysis No precisely defined hypotheses. Instead there are general aims and theoretical notions about the phenomenon being studied. Data is analyzed and categorized as data collection proceeds Sub-sets of categories formed to describe the full range of the data. Theory building is done by linking categories and different segments of data.
Data Collection and Analysis - II Analysis proceeds as follows: –Description of the sample population –Coding of data –Displaying summaries of data for interpretation –Drawing of conclusions –Testing and confirming the findings
Qualitative Approach in Medical Research Qualitative methods may be employed in: –Preliminary stage for hypothesis generation, and design of data form –Principal stage for case studies; for sensitive topics; for process evaluation. –Validation stage for validation between techniques or methods