Presentation on theme: "Constructing Hypotheses"— Presentation transcript:
1 Constructing Hypotheses A hypothesis is a testable statement of a potential relationship between two or more variables or a potential difference between two or more groups.Characteristics:1. It should be reasonable.2. It should be stated in definite terms: cause and effect, correlational or measure of difference.3. It should be testable.4. It should follow the findings of previous studies.
2 Research hypothesis – as established in the literature. Null hypothesis – testable hypothesis.FunctionsA hypothesis introduces the researcher’sthinking at the start of the study.2. The hypothesis structures the next stages or procedures of the study.3. The hypothesis helps the researcher provide the format for the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data in the thesis.
3 Significance of the Study Established using four interrelated lines of argumentThe study may advance knowledge in theapplicable field of study.It may contribute to the solution of a practicalproblem faced by educators.3. It may demonstrate a novel use of aprocedure/technique.4. It is part of a programmatic research effort.Demonstrate that the study is more than clericalor counting activity.
4 Justification/Rationale for the Study Intended to answer the following questionsWhy is the study being proposed in relationto other work completed in the field?2. Why are the particular variables or treatmentsof interest in the study have been chosen overcompeting alternatives?Support the arguments presented withreference to other research and/or authoritativeopinion that may be described in detail in thereview of literature.
5 Theoretical/Conceptual Framework justifies the rationale behind the investigationgives the reason for searching for new data andfor analyzing, interpreting and synthesizing thesedata.cites the theory(ies) on which the study ispremised in order to establish the relationshipamong the variables in the study.Theoretical FrameworkExplains how the study is related to a theory in thefield of business management, psychology andother related fields
6 Theoretical Framework generalization about a phenomenon based onsome amount of evidence and continuedverificationshapes the justification of the research problemin order to identify the key concepts that areused in the study for better understanding of therole of theory in researchConceptual Frameworkdetailed presentation of the variables to beobserved in the study
7 Conceptual Frameworkconstructs used are derived from the theoreticalframework and linked with the current studyfollowed by a paradigm that links the variablesDelimiting the Research ProblemWhat the researcher intends to do is stated inthe problem; what the researcher is not goingto do is stated in the delimitation or scope.
8 Scope or delimitationnarrowing down the topicdefines the parameters of the investigationdeals with such items as variables considered,population/sample, treatment(s), setting, andinstrumentationThe limitations set forth reservations, qualifications, or weaknesses inherent in the design.
9 Assumptions1. Assumptions are what the researcher takes forgranted or accepts for purposes of conductingthe study.2. If the basic assumptions being made are not self-evident or made clear in some other part of the proposal, they should be stated in the assumptions section.Some assumptions made in educational researchare value-laden and not subject to validation bythe research process
10 Use of an introductory sentence and a listing is often appropriate or paragraph form mayimprove readability.Definition of Termsa section of the report in which definitions aregiven for words, acronyms, abbreviations,names, labels, and the like that are central tothe study1. conceptual or constitutivegiven in dictionaries; academic or universalmeaning attributed to a word or group of words
11 2. operational or functional stated the way the concept is measured in theinvestigation.In designing the study, operational definitions of all relevant variables must be transformed into a specific methodology and a specific set of measuring devices or techniques.1. Unless there is a standard, accepted meaning, define any technical term that is essential to readerunderstanding of the problem statement hypotheses, and procedures and methods of analysis.
12 Do not define terms used in general academic speech that retain their meaning in the study3. Do not define terms found in general textbooks in the field.4. Often both constitutive and operational definitionswill be needed.5. Even though the key terms may be defined as they are introduced, it is expected that a "definitions" section with the key terms alphabetized and identified as paragraph side headings be included.