Presentation on theme: "Constructing Hypotheses A hypothesis is a testable statement of a potential relationship between two or more variables or a potential difference between."— Presentation transcript:
Constructing Hypotheses A hypothesis is a testable statement of a potential relationship between two or more variables or a potential difference between two or more groups. Characteristics: 1. It should be reasonable. 2. It should be stated in definite terms: cause and effect, correlational or measure of difference. 3. It should be testable. 4. It should follow the findings of previous studies.
Research hypothesis – as established in the literature. Null hypothesis – testable hypothesis. Functions 1. A hypothesis introduces the researcher’s thinking at the start of the study. 2. The hypothesis structures the next stages or procedures of the study. 3. The hypothesis helps the researcher provide the format for the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data in the thesis.
Significance of the Study Established using four interrelated lines of argument 1. The study may advance knowledge in the applicable field of study. 2. It may contribute to the solution of a practical problem faced by educators. 3. It may demonstrate a novel use of a procedure/technique. 4. It is part of a programmatic research effort. Demonstrate that the study is more than clerical or counting activity.
Justification/Rationale for the Study Intended to answer the following questions 1. Why is the study being proposed in relation to other work completed in the field? 2. Why are the particular variables or treatments of interest in the study have been chosen over competing alternatives? Support the arguments presented with reference to other research and/or authoritative opinion that may be described in detail in the review of literature.
Theoretical/Conceptual Framework justifies the rationale behind the investigation gives the reason for searching for new data and for analyzing, interpreting and synthesizing these data. cites the theory(ies) on which the study is premised in order to establish the relationship among the variables in the study. Theoretical Framework Explains how the study is related to a theory in the field of business management, psychology and other related fields
Theoretical Framework generalization about a phenomenon based on some amount of evidence and continued verification shapes the justification of the research problem in order to identify the key concepts that are used in the study for better understanding of the role of theory in research Conceptual Framework detailed presentation of the variables to be observed in the study
Conceptual Framework constructs used are derived from the theoretical framework and linked with the current study followed by a paradigm that links the variables Delimiting the Research Problem What the researcher intends to do is stated in the problem; what the researcher is not going to do is stated in the delimitation or scope.
Scope or delimitation narrowing down the topic defines the parameters of the investigation deals with such items as variables considered, population/sample, treatment(s), setting, and instrumentation The limitations set forth reservations, qualifications, or weaknesses inherent in the design.
Assumptions 1. Assumptions are what the researcher takes for granted or accepts for purposes of conducting the study. 2. If the basic assumptions being made are not self- evident or made clear in some other part of the proposal, they should be stated in the assumptions section. 3. Some assumptions made in educational research are value-laden and not subject to validation by the research process
4. Use of an introductory sentence and a listing is often appropriate or paragraph form may improve readability. Definition of Terms a section of the report in which definitions are given for words, acronyms, abbreviations, names, labels, and the like that are central to the study 1. conceptual or constitutive given in dictionaries; academic or universal meaning attributed to a word or group of words
2. operational or functional stated the way the concept is measured in the investigation. In designing the study, operational definitions of all relevant variables must be transformed into a specific methodology and a specific set of measuring devices or techniques. 1. Unless there is a standard, accepted meaning, define any technical term that is essential to reader understanding of the problem statement hypotheses, and procedures and methods of analysis.
2. Do not define terms used in general academic speech that retain their meaning in the study 3. Do not define terms found in general textbooks in the field. 4. Often both constitutive and operational definitions will be needed. 5. Even though the key terms may be defined as they are introduced, it is expected that a "definitions" section with the key terms alphabetized and identified as paragraph side headings be included.