Presentation on theme: "L1 Chapter 14 Grounded Theory Designs Dr. Bill Bauer EDUC 640."— Presentation transcript:
l1 Chapter 14 Grounded Theory Designs Dr. Bill Bauer EDUC 640
l2 A Brief History of Grounded Theory Designs ► 1967 Glaser and Strauss book Discover of Grounded Theory ► 1990, 1998 Strauss and Corbin prescriptive form with predetermined categories and concerns about reliability and validity ► 2000 Charmaz introduces “Constructivist” method
l3 Types of Grounded Theory Design: Systematic Design ► Open Coding: properties and dimensionalized properties ► Axial Coding: researcher selects one open coding category and places it at the center as the Central Phenomenon and then relates all other categories to it. ► Selective Coding: writing a theory based on the interrelationship of the categories from axial coding
l4 Open Coding to the Axial Coding Paradigm Open Coding Categories Category Axial Coding Paradigm Context Causal Conditions Core Category or Phenomenon StrategiesConsequences Intervening Conditions One open coding category as core phenomenon
l5 Types of Grounded Theory Design: Emerging Design ► Grounded theory exists at the most abstract conceptual level rather than the least abstract level as found in visual data presentations such as a coding paradigm ► A theory is grounded in the data and not forced into categories ► Four essential criteria: fit, work, relevance, modifiability
l6 Types of Grounded Theory Design: Constructivist Design ► Philosophical position between positivist and post-modern researchers ► Theorist explains feelings of individuals as they experience a phenomenon or process
l7 Types of Grounded Theory Design: Constructivist Design ► Study mentions beliefs and values of the researcher and eschews predetermined categories ► Narrative is more explanatory, discursive, and probing the assumptions and meanings for the individuals in the study.
l8 Key Characteristics of Grounded Theory Design ► Studying a process related to a substantive topic ► Sampling theoretically involving the simultaneous and sequential collection and analysis of data ► Constantly comparing data with an emerging theory
l9 A Process and Categories Within the Flow of Research in Grounded Theory The research problem leads to A study of a central phenomenon in grounded theory research questions That addresses a process Which contains - a sequence of activities - including actions by people - including interactions by people Which a grounded theorist begins to understand by developing - categories - relating categories - developing a theory that explains
l10 Zig-Zag Data Collection and Analysis to Achieve Saturation of Categories Data Collection Data Analysis Close to Saturated Categories Third Interview Second Interview First Interview More Refined Categories Refined Categories Preliminary Categories Toward Saturation of Categories
l11 Constant Comparison Procedures in Grounded Theory Category ICategory II Code B Code CCode A Indicators Raw Data (e.g. transcripts, field notes, documents
l12 Example of a Theory - A Model of Ethnic Minority Students in the Process of Community Building Intervening Conditions Withdrawal Passive, low risk Active Strategies Ethnicity - Hispanic -Black Gender -male -female Background - Economic Differences -Diversity -Adapting to Change Sense of Self Peer Interactions Community Causal ConditionPhenomenon Properties - Nature of Interactions - Racial Differences - Quantity of Friends - Intensity - Time to Develop Friends Properties - Sense of Belonging - Source - Importance
l13 Conducting a Grounded Theory Study ► Decide if Grounded Theory design best addresses the research problem ► Identify a process to study ► Seek approval and access ► Conduct theoretical sampling
l14 Conducting a Grounded Theory Study ► Code the data ► Use selective coding and develop the theory ► Validate your theory ► Write a grounded theory research report
l15 Criteria for Evaluating a Grounded Theory Design: Theory Evaluation ► Is there an obvious connection between the categories and the raw data? ► Is the theory useful as a conceptual explanation for the process being studied? ► Does the theory provide a relevant explanation of actual problems and a basic process? ► Can the theory be modified as conditions change or further data are gathered?
l16 Criteria for Evaluating a Grounded Theory Design: Research Evaluation ► Is a theoretical model developed or generated that conceptualizes a process, action, or interaction? ► Is there a central phenomenon (or core category) specified at the heart of the model?
l17 Criteria for Evaluating a Grounded Theory Design: Research Evaluation ► Does the model emerge through phases of coding? (e.g. initial codes to more theoretically oriented codes or open coding to axial coding to selective coding ► Does the researcher attempt to interrelate categories?
l18 Criteria for Evaluating a Grounded Theory Design: Research Evaluation ► Does the researcher gather extensive data so as to develop a detailed conceptual theory as well saturated in the data? ► Does the study show how the researcher validated the evolving theory by comparing it to the data, examining how the theory supports or refutes existing theories in the literature, or checking theory with participants?
l19 Applying What you Have Learned: Grounded Theory Review the article and look for the following: ► The research problem and use of quantitative research ► Use of the literature ► The purpose statement and research hypothesis ► Types and procedures of data collection ► Types and procedures of data analysis and interpretation ► The overall report structure