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Nutrients Substances that Seven Categories: Provide Energy

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Presentation on theme: "Nutrients Substances that Seven Categories: Provide Energy"— Presentation transcript:

1 Nutrients Substances that Seven Categories: Provide Energy
Helps with body processes Helps with growth & repair of cells Seven Categories: Fats Proteins Carbohydrates Fiber Minerals Vitamins Water Nutrition is the study of what people eat & of eating habits & how these affect health status. Nutrients are substances in food that provide energy, and help the body function, grow, and repair and maintain itself.

2 Carbohydrates Main source of energy Fiber 1g carbs = 4 calories
Simple Carbohydrates: sugars that provide quick energy Complex carbohydrates: starches & fibers Fiber Part of grains & plant foods that cannot be digested Helps move food through digestive system Reduces cholesterol & risk of heart disease Carbohydrates are our main source of energy. 1 gram is equal to 4 calories. There are simple and complex carbohydrates. Both simple and complex carbs become glucose after digestion Complex carbs such as fruits and veggies often contain vitamins and minerals. Diabetes is a condition of having little or no insulin produced by the pancreas. Fiber is a carbohydrate that passes through your body undigested. It is mainly cellulose, the part of plants that can’t be digested. It helps keep your digestive system functioning properly and maintains its health.

3 Protein Nutrient needed: 1 g protein = 4 calories
For Growth To build, repair, and maintain body tissues To regulate body processes To supply energy 1 g protein = 4 calories Amino acids: building blocks that make up proteins 9 of the amino acids are considered essential (body cannot produce) 11 are considered nonessential (body can produce Complete protein = contains all essential amino acids Incomplete protein = is low in 1 or more essential amino acids Protein makes up important components of muscles, connective tissue, skin, organs, blood, some hormones, antibodies and enzymes Average adult requirement for protein is considered to be 0.8 grams per kg body weight. Protein contains about 4 calories per gram, and can be used for energy when carbohydrate stores are low. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein, and are provided to the body by the breakdown of dietary protein during digestion. Essential amino acids can only be provided by the diet (FOOD). Nonessential amino acids can be produced by the body Many plant proteins are incomplete, but a vegetarian diet can provide the body with all needed amino acids with correct planning.

4 Fats Nutrient that 1 g fat = 9 calories Saturated
Found mainly in animal room temp. Causes liver to produce cholesterol Trans Fat: snack foods & margarine Unsaturated: room temp. Monounsaturated: olive & canola oils Polyunsaturated: sunflower, corn, canola oils, seafood Nutrient that source of stored energy Helps body store & use vitamins Maintain body heat Build brain cells & nerve tissue 1 g fat = 9 calories Fat is the main way our body stores energy. It is an efficient means of storage used by plants and animals alike. Fat contains 9 calories per gram. It helps our bodies use vitamins and is a component in nerve tissue. No more than 10% of daily calories should come from saturated fat; and less than 30% from all fats There are 2 types. Saturated are solid at room temperature and not as healthy as unsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential b/c they are required in the diet & used in the body for cell structure & producing some hormones.

5 Vitamins Nutrient that:
Helps the body use carbohydrates, fats, & proteins Fat Soluble Vitamins: dissolves in fat & can be stored in the body Vitamins A, D, E, K released as the body needs them Taking large doses can be toxic Water Soluble Vitamins Dissolves in water & is not stored in the body in significant amounts must be replenished regularly Excess excreted from body B1 (thiamin), B2, B6, B12, C, niacin, folic acid, riboflavin There are 13 essential vitamins that have been determined because of their special function & the ways they work with other nutrients… The human body cannot manufacture vitamins, they must be obtained from the foods we eat or from dietary supplements. Fat-soluble vitamins require fat to be dissolved (which is why fat is an important part of the diet). Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the fatty tissues, principally the liver; they are released as your body needs them. Taking a greater amount of vitamins A & D can cause serious toxic effects over a period of time. Fat soluble vitamins include A, D, E, and K. Water-soluble vitamins are dissolved in water. When more is consumed than needed, the excess is eliminated in the urine. This does not enhance performance. While consuming large amounts of water soluble vitamins can be toxic in some cases, it is less likely due to them being excreted daily. Regular consumption of water soluble vitamins is important due to the fact that they are not stored.

6 Minerals Water Nutrient that Nutrient that Macro minerals Sources
Regulates chemical reactions in the body Builds tissues Macro minerals Calcium Phosphorus Potassium Sodium Micro minerals Copper Iron zinc Nutrient that Involved in all body processes Makes up the basic part of blood Helps with waste removal Regulates body temperature Cushions spinal cord & joints Sources Drinking water Moist food (fruits & veggies) Dehydration: when water content of body is very low Diuretic: product that increases urine output Minerals such as calcium and phosphorus are important to build bones and teeth. Others are important components of hormones. Certain minerals, called electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride) are needed for muscle contraction, heart rhythm and the conduction of nerve impulses. Copper and iron are important for red blood cell production & function. Hemoglobin is made up mainly of iron. Zinc helps with digestion & wound healing Kidneys play an important role in regulating body’s water balance To maintain proper hydration adequate water must be taken in Signs of dehydration: dizziness, fatigue, weakness, dry mouth, flushed skin, headache, blurred vision, difficulty swallowing, dry, hot skin; rapid pulse, frequent need to urinate Examples of diuretics, soda, tea, coffee, energy drinks, anything with caffeine, alcohol

7 Vitamins and Their Functions
Vitamin A- aids in immune function, bone and teeth formation, promotes growth and repair of body tissues Vitamin D- improves absorption of calcium and phosphorus, maintains nervous system Vitamin E- major antioxidant, nourishes cells, prevents blood clots Vitamin K- prevents internal bleeding Vitamin B- promote growth and muscle tone, aids in digesting carbs, maintain nervous system and vision, maintain red and white blood cells, aids in metabolizing proteins, promote healthy skin Vitamin C- antioxidant, maintains oral health, helps heal wounds, helps prevent infection, prevents scurvy Folic Acid- promotes growth and reproduction of cells, aids in formation of red blood cells and bone marrow, prevents neural tube birth defects Here is a more detailed look at the functions of various vitamins. Vitamin A is important in immune function, bone and teeth formation, and repairing tissues. Vitamin D improves the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. Vitamin E is an antioxidant and prevents blood clots. Vitamin K prevents internal bleeding. Vitamin B promotes growth and muscle tone, it aids in the digestion of carbohydrate and is important of a host of other bodily processes. Vitamin C is an antioxidant that is important for oral health and aids in wound healing. Folic Acid is one of the B vitamins that is very important in preventing birth defects.

8 Minerals and Their Functions
Macro minerals Sodium- controls volume of fluid in body, maintains pH, essential for nerve and muscle function Potassium- essential for nerve and muscle function Phosphorus- makes up bone, forms compounds for energy like ATP Calcium- makes up bones and teeth, essential for nerve function, muscle function and blood clotting Iron- essential for oxygen transfer (hemoglobin) Magnesium- essential for bones, function of nerves and muscles, needed for many enzymes The functions of minerals are complex as well. Macro minerals are called that because they are needed in greater amounts than the other group of minerals known as micro minerals. Sodium, which is a component of salt, like that in the background picture, controls the volume of fluid in the body. This is why it affects blood pressure so much. It also maintains the necessary pH for proper nerve and muscle function. Potassium is another mineral that is important in nerve and muscle function. Phosphorus makes up bone and energy compounds. Calcium makes up bones as well as teeth. It is essential for proper nerve function and aids in blood clotting. Iron is needed to carry oxygen in the blood. Magnesium is essential for bones and nerve and muscle function. Many enzymes contain it.

9 Micro minerals Chromium- Involved in skeletal muscle function.
Copper- Contained in enzymes and red blood cells Zinc- needed in enzymes, strengthens immune system Selenium- antioxidant, strengthens immune system, in many enzymes Micro minerals, which are needed in lesser amounts than macro minerals, include Chromium, Copper, Zinc, and Selenium. Chromium is involved in muscle function. Copper is in enzymes and needed in red blood cells. Zinc, another important component of enzymes, strengthens the immune system. Selenium is an antioxidant and is also important in immune function and enzymes.

10 Sources of Vitamins Vitamin A- liver, eggs, dark green and yellow vegetables B vitamins- lean meats, fish, poultry, whole grains, potatoes, bananas, lentils, chili peppers, and molasses Vitamin C- citrus, tomatoes, red and green peppers, and berries Vitamin E- oils, nuts, beans, whole grains, and leafy greens Vitamin D- sunlight (body makes it), milk (fortified with it) Vitamin K- leafy greens, broccoli Folic Acid- leafy greens, poultry, dried beans, and oranges There are many sources of vitamins. If one gets a balanced diet, they really don’t need supplements. A great source of Vitamin A is liver. Other sources include eggs, leafy greens, and yellow vegetables. B vitamins are found in meat, fish and poultry as well as grains, potatoes, bananas, lentils, peppers and molasses. Vitamin C is mainly found in citrus, tomatoes, peppers, and berries. Vitamin E is present in oils, nuts, beans, grains, and leafy greens. Vitamin D can be produced in the skin by exposure to sunlight. It is also in fortified milk. Vitamin K is in leafy greens and broccoli. Leafy greens are also a good source of folic acid. Other sources of folic acid include dried beans and oranges.

11 Sources of Minerals Calcium- milk, cheese, and produce
Iron- eggs, leafy greens, liver, meat, and nuts Phosphorus- dairy, fruits, meats, and vegetables Magnesium- eggs, fish, nuts, milk, and leafy greens Sodium- table salt, processed foods Potassium- Cereal, coffee, fruit, meat, and whole grains Copper- liver, raisins, peas, cocoa Zinc- eggs, liver, red meat, seafood, and whole grains Selenium- eggs, garlic, seafood, whole grains Chromium- Cheese, fruit, meat, and nuts As you can see many meat and dairy products are good mineral sources. Other mineral sources include salt, fruits and vegetables.

12 Sources
Images: MS Clipart

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