Presentation on theme: "Nutrition Have you ever stopped to think about the saying, you are what you eat? There may have never been a more true saying. Why is this so??? Because."— Presentation transcript:
Nutrition Have you ever stopped to think about the saying, you are what you eat? There may have never been a more true saying. Why is this so??? Because the basic building blocks of your body- your muscles, bones, and bodily fluids- are composed of the nutrients that are essential to your optimal health! Optimal in this case means the best.
Nutrition (cont.) Nutrient- A chemical substance found in a food that: Builds, repairs, and maintains body tissues Regulates body processes Provides energy (measured in calories) A calorie is a unit of measure for both the energy supplied by food and the energy used by the body.
Protein Protein is a nutrient needed to build, repair, and maintain body tissues. Protein forms part of muscles, bones, blood, cell membranes, and hormones. Proteins are needed to maintain strength and resist infection. They also provide energy. Each single gram of protein provides us with 4 calories of energy.
Protein (cont.) Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Your body needs 20 amino acids. However, body cells can only produce 11 of the 20. The remaining 9 amino acids that the body cannot manufacture are called essential amino acids- you must get them from the food you eat.
Protein (cont.) Complete proteins are proteins from animal sources that contain all the essential amino acids. Examples include meat, fish, chicken, turkey, milk, yogurt, and eggs. Incomplete proteins are proteins from plant sources that do not contain all the essential amino acids. However, by eating certain combinations of incomplete proteins (i.e. rice & beans), it is possible to get all of the essential amino acids.
Carbohydrates Carbohydrates, or carbs, are the nutrients that provides energy to the body. Each single gram of carbohydrate provides us with 4 calories of energy (the same as protein, coincidentally). Simple carbohydrates are sugars that enter the bloodstream quickly and provide quick energy. Complex carbohydrates (i.e. starches) provide long-lasting energy.
Carbohydrates (cont.) Examples of simple carbs include fruit, honey, and candy. Examples of complex carbs include rice, wheat, and oats. Fiber is the part of grains that cannot be digested. Wheat, bran, fruits & vegetables are good sources of fiber. Fiber provides no calories because it is undigested. However, fiber helps move waste products through the digestive tract, and may play a role in fighting certain types of cancer (i.e. colon, colorectal).
Fats Fats are nutrients that are a source of energy and make certain vitamins available for use in the body (A, D, E & K). Fat tissue surrounds and cushions internal organs such as the heart and kidneys. Each single gram of fat provides us with 9 calories- more than double that of protein or carbohydrates!
Fats (cont.) Trans-fats are now known to be the most dangerous to your health (linked to heart disease). Saturated fats are the next most dangerous type of fat after trans-fats. They raise bad cholesterol (LDLs) and triglyceride (blood fats) levels. Polyunsaturated fats have been shown to be beneficial to the diet, raising the level of good cholesterol (HDLs).
Water Water is a nutrient that: Makes up a large portion of your blood Helps the process of digestion Helps remove body wastes Regulates body temperature Cushions the spinal cord and joints. You need about 6-8 glasses of water per day, or more if you are an athlete.
Vitamins Vitamins are nutrients that help chemical reactions take place in the body. Vitamins do not supply energy (calories), but they are needed to release the energy from fats and carbohydrates. Fat soluble vitamins (A,D,E & K) are stored in the body. Water soluble vitamins (B & C) are not stored in the body- they leave the body in urine- so they must be replenished on a daily basis.
Vitamins (cont.) Vitamin and function: A- Helps night vision, helps the body fight off infections, helps form mucus. Found in carrots, sweet potatoes, green leafy vegetables. B- Helps body release energy from foods, promotes a healthy nervous system, helps body absorb protein and use carbs. Found in yeast, nuts, beans, rice, pasta, liver, milk, yogurt, cottage cheese, poultry, meat, fish, fortified cereals, peas.
C- Helps strengthen blood vessels, helps body resist infections, helps prevent scurvy, a disease characterized by weakness, anemia, open sores, and bleeding gums. Vitamin C is found in oranges, grapefruit, strawberries, tomatoes, and broccoli. D- Helps the body use calcium and phosphorus for healthy bones and teeth. Vitamin D is found in dairy products, fish liver oils, egg yolks, and salmon.
Vitamins (cont.) E- Helps body maintain normal cell structure, helps form red blood cells. Found in vegetable oils, almonds, eggs, green leafy vegetables, whole grain cereals. K- Promotes blood clotting and is needed by the liver for the liver to produce blood clotting agents. Found in green vegetables, fish meal, and vitamin supplements.
Minerals Minerals are nutrients that regulate many chemical reactions in the body, and are needed for proper growth. Major minerals are found in the body in amounts larger than 5 grams. Trace minerals are found in the body in amounts less than 5 grams. 5% of your body weight is made up of minerals.
Minerals (cont.) Calcium- Strengthens teeth & bones, helps muscles contract & relax, helps nerves send signals. Found in dairy products, collard greens, kale, and turnips. Iron- Helps the body use energy, forms part of red blood cells. Found in red meat, organ meats, prunes, dried beans, and peas.
Minerals (cont.) Magnesium- Helps fight depression, helps prevent heart attack, promotes healthy teeth & gums. Found in grapefruit, lemons, nuts, seeds, apples, and dark green vegetables. Phosphorus- Promotes growth and repair of cells, helps the body use starches, promotes healthy teeth & gums. Found in eggs, nuts, fish, poultry, meat, and whole grains.
Minerals (cont.) Potassium- Helps maintain heart rhythm, reduces blood pressure, helps in waste removal. Found in oranges and other citrus fruits, bananas, green leafy vegetables. Sodium- Helps the body prevent heat exhaustion, aids in proper nerve and muscle function. Found in table salt, meats, shellfish, poultry, and eggs.