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Published byEthelbert Stafford Modified over 7 years ago
What are Nutrients? Family & Consumer Science Mrs. Fleagle Grade 7
Nutrients Elements or compounds that are essential for plant and animal growth. Carbohydrates Protein Water Fat Vitamins Minerals Fiber
Carbohydrates Organic nutrients that provide the body with its main source of energy. Food that comes from plants (Breads, cereals, pasta, rice, potatoes, corn, fruits, sugars, flours, beets).
Types of Carbohydrates Simple – Candy, sugar, soda, white rice, white flour, fruit juice – quick energy sources, lack vitamins, minerals, or fiber Complex – Whole grain bread and pasta, brown rice, raw fruits and vegetables. Provide vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Body’s main source of energy.
Proteins Organic nutrients that provide the body with materials for growth and repair. Made up of building blocks called amino acids. Makes up our hair, nails, and teeth. Hormones, antibodies, and enzymes Helps wounds to heal and blood to clot.
Types of Protein Complete – contain essential amino acids that our bodies cannot make on their own. Found in foods that come from animals, meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, cheese, yogurt. Soy is the only plant food that provides all 9 essential amino acids (tofu, soy milk). Incomplete – some of the essential amino acids are missing. Examples: vegetables, grains, nuts and seeds. Complementary – two or more incomplete proteins combine to provide complete protein. Examples: rice and beans, peanut butter and whole grain bread.
Water The human body is made up of between 55% to 85% water. Contains no calories. Carries waste out of the body. Carries oxygen and nutrients to cells Lubricates joints Regulates body temperature. 6-8 glasses each day Found in fruits and vegetables.
Fats Organic nutrient that protects internal organs, insulates to retain body heat, and is a good source of energy. Butter, cooking oils, margarine, ice cream, salad dressings, meats, nuts, mayonnaise.
Types of Fat Saturated Fat – Solid at room temperature. Found in meat, poultry skin and foods made from whole milk. Unsaturated Fat – Liquid at room temperature. Found in vegetable oils, nuts, fish and olives. Trans Fat – Liquid oils are turned into solids like shortening and hard margarine. Found in crackers, cookies, snack foods, fried foods and baked goods. Cholesterol – A waxy substance found in every cell of humans, fish, birds, and animals.
Vitamins Organic nutrient needed in very small amounts that helps to control the chemical functions of the body. Growth, healing, resistance to sickness and disease, healthy skin, teeth, eyes, hair, bones. All food groups.
Water Soluble Vitamins Vitamins that our bodies need each day. Not stored. Excess is eliminated in urine. Vitamin C - Citrus fruits, strawberries, melons Vitamin B Complex – Milk, whole grains, poultry, fish, eggs
Fat Soluble Vitamins Excess is stored in our body fat. Vitamin A – For vision, growth, nervous system. Found in liver, oranges, pears & orange vegetables Vitamin D – For bones and teeth. Found in milk and created in our bodies by sunlight. Vitamin E – For energy and cell protection. Found in green leafy vegetables, fruits, whole grains, liver, apples, oils, fats. Vitamin K – Helps blood to clot. Found in dark green vegetables, cabbage, cauliflower, and liver.
Minerals Inorganic compounds that help regulate body processes and give the body structure.
Macrominerals – Required in larger amounts (100 or more mg. per day). Potassium/Sodium/Chloride – Salt, citrus fruits, bananas, green leafy vegetables, potatoes. Phosphorus – meat, eggs, nuts, fish poultry, whole grains. Calcium – Milk products, dark green leafy vegetables, sardines. Magnesium – Nuts, chocolate, whole grains, dark green vegetables.
Microminerals – needed in smaller amounts (less than 100 mg. per day). Zinc – Milk, meat, fish, grains, raisins. Iodine – Seafood, and added to salt. Copper – Meat, egg yolks, nuts, green vegetables, grains, shellfish, organ meats. Fluoride – Added to our water, fish, eggs, milk, some toothpaste. Iron – Liver, red meat, eggs, green leafy vegetables.
Fiber Roughage that works to help move food through your digestive system. Digestion, helps get rid of waste Raw fruits and vegetables, whole grain breads and cereals. 25 grams needed each day.
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