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Six Basic Nutrients Chapter 12 Section 1
Carbohydrates (65% of your diet) Definition = A class of nutrients that contains sugars and starches and is made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Function = Excellent source of energy.
Types of carbohydrates Simple = consist of sugars (glucose, fructose, lactose, sucrose) and are important for quick bursts of energy. Examples include: cookies, candy, and soft drinks.
Complex = sugars that are linked together chemically to form long chains (starch). Important for long-term, sustained energy. Examples include: rice, cereals, and bread.
Fiber = a type of complex carbohydrate found in plants. Indigestible plant material necessary for the proper functioning of the digestive system. Prevents constipation. Foods high in fiber include: whole grain breads, cereals, vegetables, and fruits.
Empty Calorie Foods = foods high in calories (simple sugar) with few valuable nutrients. Empty calorie foods include: candy, soda, alcohol If you eat so many carbohydrates that the excess cannot be stored as glycogen (stored glucose), it is stored as fat.
Fat (less than 30% of your diet) Definition = The class of nutrients with the highest energy content. Made from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Function = Energy supply, part of the structure of cells, and important for healthy hair and skin.
Types of fat Saturated = Contain as many hydrogen atoms in their structure as possible. Solid at room temperature. Foods high in saturated fat: beef, pork, chicken, lamb, dairy products
Trans Fats = Fats that are formed when vegetable oils are processed into margarine or shortening. Examples include: Fats in snack foods and baked goods made with "partially hydrogenated vegetable oil" or "vegetable shortening." Trans fatty acids also occur naturally in some animal products such as dairy products.
Polyunsaturated fat = fat that contains fewer hydrogen atoms than possible and are open to hydrogenation (process of hardening the fat or oil). These have two or more double bonds. Liquid at room temperature. foods with polyunsaturated fat include: good: oily fish, walnuts, pumpkin seeds. not so good: corn, sunflower, safflower oil.
Monounsaturated fat = fat that contains fewer hydrogen atoms than possible and are open to hydrogenation (process of hardening the fat or oil). These have a single double bond. Liquid at room temperature. Foods with monounsaturated fat include: olive oil, almonds, cashews, avocado
Cholesterol = a waxy fat-like substance found in the cells of all animals. Foods high in cholesterol include: meats, dairy products, and eggs.
Recommendations: Limit your total intake of fat to no more than 30% of your total calories needed. Avoid saturated fats, cholesterol, and the “not so good” polyunsaturated fats.
Protein (10-15% of your diet) Definition = nutrients that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Function = growth and repair of body tissue, and an energy source.
Amino Acids = chemical substances that make up proteins. Essential amino acids= nutrients your body cannot produce or store so you must get them through food. Nine of the 20 amino acids are essential. Complete protein = food that has all essential amino acids (animal products, soy, poi)
Vitamins Definition = Made by living things and are only needed in small amounts. Function: assist in many chemical reactions in the body.
Types of vitamins water-soluble = dissolve in water. Should be supplied daily. Vitamin B: Good sources include: Milk, poultry, fish, whole grains, cheese, nuts, and eggs. Vitamin C: Good sources include: Citrus fruits, green vegetables, melons, potatoes, and tomatoes
fat-soluble = dissolve in fat (can be stored in body). Vitamin A: Good sources include: eggs, cheese, milk, orange, dark green vegetables and fruits. Vitamin D: Good sources include: Milk, eggs, liver, and exposure of skin to sunlight. Vitamin E: Good sources include: Margarine, vegetables oils, wheat germ, whole grains, greens, and leafy vegetables. Vitamin K: Good sources include: Greens, leafy vegetables, liver.
Minerals Definition = nutrients that are not manufactured by living things.
Important minerals to consider: calcium: important for: building and maintaining bones and teeth; nerve and muscle function; blood clotting. Good sources include: Milk and milk products, dark greens, leafy vegetables, and tofu.
sodium: excess can lead to: high blood pressure. Foods high in sodium include: table salt, soy sauce, processed foods.
iron: deficiency can lead to: anemia Good sources include: red meats, sea food, greens, dried fruits, and fortified cereals.
Water Water is 65 percent of our body weight and essential for all life processes.
Functions = 1. chemical reactions 2. primary component in blood and tissue fluids 3. energy production 4. digests food 5. carries dissolved wasted products out of the body 6. brings nutrients to cells 7. regulates body temp. Recommended daily intake of water: 8 cups
Energy Content Carbohydrates - 1 gm = 4 Cal Proteins-1 gm = 4 Cal Fat-1 gm = 9 Cal Alcohol-1 gm = 7 Cal
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