Presentation on theme: "Crime and Social Control"— Presentation transcript:
1Crime and Social Control Chapter 4Crime and Social Control
2Chapter Outline The Global Context: International Crime and Violence Sources of Crime StatisticsSociological Theories of CrimeTypes of CrimeDemographic Patterns of CrimeThe Costs of Crime and Social ControlUnderstanding Crime and Social Control
3Crime Throughout the World Similarities:There is no country without crime.Most countries have the same components in their criminal justice systems: police, courts, and prisons.Worldwide, adult males make up the largest category of crime suspects.In all countries theft is the most common crime committed and violent crime is a relatively rare event.
4Transnational CrimesOffenses whose inception, prevention, and/or direct or indirect effects involve more than one country.
5Examples of Transnational Crimes Russian ruble, precious metals, arms are smuggled out of the country.Chinese Triads operate rings of prostitution, drugs, and other organized crime.Children are trafficked through Canada and Mexico for child pornography.
6Major Types of Crime Statistics Official statisticsVictimization surveysSelf-report offender surveys
10Strain TheoryPeople adapt to inconsistency between means and goals in society.Methods of adaptation: conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism and rebellion.
11Merton’s Strain Theory Mode of AdaptationSeeks Culturally Defined Goals?Uses Structurally Defined Means to Achieve Them?ConformityYesInnovationNo
12Merton’s Strain Theory Mode of AdaptationSeeks Culturally Defined Goals?Uses Structurally Defined Means to Achieve Them?RitualismNoYesRetreatismRebellionNo-Seeks to replaceNo-seeks to replace
13Control TheorySocial bonds constrain some individuals from violating social norms:Attachment to significant others.Commitment to conventional goals.Involvement in conventional activities.Belief in the moral standards of society.
14Subcultural TheoriesCertain groups or subcultures in society have values and attitudes conducive to violence.Members of these subcultures adopt the crime-promoting attitudes of the group.
15Conflict PerspectiveSocial inequality leads to crimes as means of economic survival.Those in power define what is criminal.Law enforcement penalizes those without power and benefits those with power.
16Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Labeling Theory Being labeled deviant leads to further deviant behavior:The labeled person is denied opportunities to engage in nondeviant behavior.The labeled person adopts a deviant self-concept and acts accordingly.
17QuestionCrime strengthens group cohesion, provides employment opportunities, and acts as a catalyst for social change. Which sociological perspective would focus on the benefits of crime?symbolic interactionismstructural functionalismexchange theoryconflict theory
18Answer: BCrime strengthens group cohesion, provides employment opportunities, and acts as a catalyst for social change. The structural functionalism perspective would focus on the benefits of crime.
19QuestionCarol steals a candy bar from a drugstore. She is apprehended and called a thief. When Carol returns to school, no one wants to talk to her or sit with her at lunch. Carol later finds acceptance among a group of girls who shoplift. While hanging out with them, Carol joins in the shoplifting. This is an example of which theory?labeling theorystrain theoryassociationcontrol theory
23Index Crime Rates Violent Crime Rate per 100,000 (2003) % Change in Rate ( )% Cleared (2003)Murder5.7+.162.4Forcible Rape32.1-2.844Robbery142.2-2.726.3Aggravated Assault205-3.946.5
24Index Crime Rates Property Crime Rate per 100,000 (2003) % Change in Rate ( )% Cleared (2003)Burglary740.5-.913.1Larceny/theft2414.5-1.518Motor Vehicle Theft433.4+.1Arson37.1+2.216.7
25Question Have you ever stolen little things worth between $2 and $50? YesNo
26QuestionHave you ever stolen things worth more than $50?YesNo
27Vice CrimesIllegal activities that have no complaining party and are often called victimless crimes.Include using illegal drugs, engaging in or soliciting prostitution, illegal gambling, and pornography.
28Organized CrimeCriminal activity conducted by members of a hierarchically arranged structure devoted primarily to making money through illegal means.
29White Collar CrimeCrimes committed in course of employment or by corporations in the interest of maximizing profit.Occupational - individuals commit crimes in the course of their employment.Corporate - corporations violate law to maximize profit.
30Types of White-Collar Crime Crimes against consumersCrimes against employeesDeceptive advertisingHealth and safety violationsAntitrust violationsWage and hour violationsDangerous productsDiscriminatory hiring practicesManufacturer kickbacksIllegal labor practicesPhysician insurance fraudUnlawful surveillance practices
31Types of White-Collar Crime Crimes against the publicCrimes against employersToxic waste disposalEmbezzlementPollution violationsPilferageTax fraudMisappropriation of government fundsSecurity violationsCounterfeit production of goodsPolice brutalityBusiness credit fraud
32Percentage of Arrests by Sex, Age, and Race, 2003
33Computer CrimeAny law violation in which a computer is the target or means of criminal activity.One of the fastest growing crimes in U.S.Hacking - unauthorized computer intrusion.Identity theft - stealing of someone else’s identification to obtain credit.
34QuestionPrice-fixing, anti-trust violations and "churning" are examples of what type of crime?corporate violencecorporate crimevictimless crimeorganized crime
35Answer: BPrice-fixing, anti-trust violations and "churning" are examples of corporate crime.
36Demographics and Crime Men are more likely to commit violent crimes than women.Highest arrest rates involve individuals under age 25.If current trends continue, by 2020, 2 in 3 black males ages 18 to 34 will be in prison.
37Race and Crime: Causally Related Statistics reflect the behaviors and policies of criminal justice actors, so the high rate of arrests, conviction, and incarceration of minorities may reflect bias against minorities.Nonwhites are overrepresented in the lower classes.Criminal justice system contact, higher for nonwhites, may lead to a lower position in the stratification system.
39Costs of CrimeIn 2003 there were more than 16,500 victims of a homicide.A total of 113,025 people a year die from corporate and professional crime and misconduct annually:56,425 workplace-related deaths from illness or injury9,600 deaths from unsafe products35,000 deaths from environmental pollution12,000 deaths from unnecessary surgery.
40Economic Costs of Crime Direct losses from crime:In 2003 the average loss of destroyed or damaged property as a result of arson was $11,942.Costs associated with theft.In 2003, $8.6 billion was lost as a result of motor vehicle theft.Cost associated with criminal violence.Medical cost of treating crime victims is approximately $5 billion annually.
41Economic Costs of Crime Costs associated with the production and sale of illegal goods and services.Cost of prevention and protectionIt is estimated that Americans spend $65 billion annually on self-protection items.The cost of social control—the criminal justice system, law enforcement, litigative and judicial activities, corrections, and victims’ assistance.The cost of the criminal justice system is estimated to be $90 billion annually and growing.
42Principle of Deterrence The use of harm or threat of harm to prevent unwanted behaviors.In 2003 the United States had 663,796 full-time law enforcement officers and 285,146 civilian support staff, yielding 3.5 law enforcement employees per 1,000 inhabitants.
44Rehabilitation and Incapacitation Rehabilitation - Helping offenders rehabilitate using education and job training, individual and group therapy, substance abuse counseling, and behavior modification. Incapacitation - Putting offender in prison.
45Prison Population Rates Per 100,000 and Rank in World (May 10, 2005)
46Capital PunishmentWith capital punishment the state takes the life of a person as punishment for a crime.38 states allow capital punishment.In 2004:59 executions took place in 11 states, with over 3,374 inmates on death row.3,797 people were executed in 25 countries despite the global trend toward abolition of the death penalty.
47Brady BillPassed in 1993, requires 5-day waiting period on handgun purchases so sellers can do a background check on the buyer.