Presentation on theme: "Changing urban models in MEDCs"— Presentation transcript:
1 Changing urban models in MEDCs How is land use changing in MEDCs?What problems can this cause and how can these problems be solved?MEDCs!
2 The Rural-Urban Fringe Rural-urban fringe: The boundary between the urban area (towns and cities) and the rural area (countryside).Because so many people want to work and live in the rural-urban fringe, different groups frequently come into conflict over how to use it. Groups that may come into conflict include:House developersHouse buyersFarmersHikers and cyclistsRoad buildersFactoriesSupermarketsBusiness or science parks
3 ADVANTAGES TO LOCAL RESIDENTS IN RURAL-URBAN FRINGE DISADVANTAGES TO LOCAL RESIDENTS IN RURAL-URBAN FRINGENew public transport links may be developedThere will be new facilities that local residents can access and useLocal residents may get jobs in the new shopping centre.The shopping centre may pull more people into the area and may benefit existing services, possibly owned by local residents (positive multiplier effect).There will be an increase in congestion as more people travel to shopping centre by car.The shopping centres may create noise, air and visual pollution all affecting local residents (negative externality)Shopping centres may destroy greenfield sites that have previously been used and enjoyed by local residents.
4 How is land use changing in MEDCs? a. What is the difference between suburbanisation and counterurbanisation? b. Who moves? c. What are the push/pull factors for people moving out of the cities? d. What factors have helped counterurbanisation? e. Create two spider diagrams to show the positive and negative impacts of counterurbanisation on rural areas
5 Population Movements in Urban Areas: Counterurbanisation
6 URBAN POPULATION MOVEMENT Phase 1City ‘core is dominant providing jobs / services and drawing in people from rural areas (a stage which most LEDC cities are now in and which MEDC cities have gone through).Phase 2- Increased affluence and better transport allowing people to move to suburbs leaving the central area (and some movement to smaller towns) – but still some attracted to the city.Phase 3- Suburbanisation and counterurbanisation are dominant trends - the case in the France and USA (but some movement back to city centre / inner city areas)Source of Diagram – Geography in Focus, I Cook et al (Causeway Press)
7 PROCESSES OF CHANGE IN URBAN AREAS 1. Suburbanisation – decentralisation of people, employment and services from the inner part of the city towards the margins of the built up area – the effects of suburbanisation are felt within the city and in the surrounding rural areas.- remember this has much to do with the improvements in public transport and increases in income2. Counterurbanisation – this is change extending beyond the city area and marks the apparent reversal of the urbanisation process which is occurring in MEDCs – i.e. urban – rural migration is taking place.
8 CounterurbanisationWhat is it?Counterurbanisation is the movement of people from urban areas into rural areas (leaving the city and moving to smaller towns and villages).There are 2 distinct trends:A movement of employment to rural areasA movement of people to rural areas who then commute.Counterurbanisation began in many parts of Western Europe in the 1960s in particular.
9 Who is moving to rural areas? The most affluent and mobile peopleFamilies with children (keen to avoid the possible disadvantages of city locations)What are the push / pull factors?Traffic congestionPollutionFear of Crime (muggings, burglary and car theft)Rural dream (idea of the ‘rural idyll’ – pleasant surroundings, quiet etc.)Estate Agents, housing developers etc.. All encourage outward movement through new developments / building more houses and marketing these areas.
10 What factors have helped counterurbanisation? Technological change – fax, blackberry, , phones, internet – led to growth of ‘teleworking’ or ‘electronic commuting’ (people working from home – encouraging rural living)Freezers, telephone, TV etc.. allow rural lifestyle but not isolationimprovements in road / motorway networks make commuting easier encouraging people to move out from the cities (gradually congestion sets in and cycle begins again)Urban renewal processes during the 50’s/60s meant that due to slum clearance large numbers of people had to move from inner city areas – most were rehoused on council estate on edge of city – or beyond the city in New Towns / overspill settlements.
11 Consequences for the Rural Settlement of Urbanisation Counterurbanisation leads to the growth of suburbanised / dormitory / commuter villages and towns e.g. Fonsorbes (commuter town), Plaisance, Colomiers etc..Negative EffectsHouse prices increase – locals young people cannot afford to buy property in areas they grew up. This is particularly the case around Toulouse.local resentment causedlack of appreciation of traditional customs of village life by newcomers – change in community spiritdormitory villages lose vitality and community spirit (very quiet during the day)increase in populationPositive EffectsImprovement in services – e.g. gas mains, cable TV, supports local schoolssupports some local facilities (e.g. bar, builders etc.) – although others may closeincreased car pollution, accidents in area.
12 Who moves back?Some people decide that rural locations are not suitable for them and end up moving back – these tend to be:Who?Young couples with no childrenOlder people (divorced / separated or prefer availability of services in urban areas)Why?Some find urban areas more convenient with the range of services availablenearer shopsshorter commuting distance for those who actually work in the city (reduce travelling times / stress / tiredness)entertainment – night life / clubs / theatresHousing Location and type – people that move back tend to move toApartments (with security systems etc.)3 storey town houses (more being built – densification)
13 How to control urban rural fringe land use Greenbelts: A greenbelt is an area of land around urban areas that is protected from development. Greenbelts were first started in the UK in the 1930's and now there are 14 greenbelts around all major urban areas. The idea is to stop greenfield sites being built on and alternative like brownfield sites being used.Urban Wedges: Some planners have suggested that urban growth should be allowed to take place in wedges (a bit like the wedges in the Hoyt Model). By building in wedges from the CBD it will ensure that some greens areas are protected near the CBD and throughout the city. This time of planning has been used in several Danish cities.Brownfield Sites: The UK government has set targets for the use of brownfield sites. They want over 60% of new houses to be built on them, therefore protecting rural areas. However, many brownfield sites are heavily polluted, increasing the cost of construction and there are shortages of brownfield sites in areas where demand for houses is greatest. For example the south east of the UK where demand is high there is a shortage of brownfield sites.Housing Density: Another proposition is to increase the housing density of all future housing developments. The UK government encourages all developments to have between 30 and 50 houses per hectare (10000m2). By doing this less land will be destroyed. Space Invading - Guardian article
14 Waugh’s Urban model - LEDCs SimilariesDifferences