Presentation on theme: " Site: actual land upon which the settlement is built, e.g. dry point, gap town; Situation: position of settlement in relation to the surrounding area;"— Presentation transcript:
Sphere of influence Catchment Low order, convenience High order, comparison
Urbanisation is the increase in the proportion of people living in towns and cities. What causes urbanisation? Urbanisation occurs because people move from rural areas (countryside) to urban areas (towns and cities). This usually occurs when a country is still developing.
is the movement of people out of cities, to the surrounding areas. There are four main reasons for counter-urbanisation: The increase in car ownership over the last 40 years means people are more mobile. This has led to an increase in commuting. Also, the growth in information technology (E-mail, faxes and video conferencing) means more people can work from home. Urban areas are becoming increasing unpleasant place to live. This is the result of pollution, crime and traffic congestion. More people tend to move when they retire. New business parks on the edge of cities (on Greenfield sites) mean people no longer have to travel to the city centre. People now prefer to live on the outskirts of the city to be near where they work.
Benefits: More people = more services; old buildings are renovated; more demand for local businesses; younger people in the village Problems: House prices go up; ‘urban sprawl’; more cars = congestion; tension between locals and ‘new comers’.
Transport: Cambridge, Paris, London; Transport Urban sprawl, green belt, new towns, brown fields, Elvetham Heath Urban sprawl Counter urbanisation, Pollution, Tokyo Counter urbanisation
Eg Basingstoke, Festival Place; solutions? Crime and vandalism. Traffic congestion. Growth of out-of-town shopping centres. Office developments on business parks in rural – urban fringe High rents and rates. Economic recession
Decline due to fall environmental, social, and economic conditions Redevelopment of inner city and CBD. Movement to outer suburbs.
60s: terraced demolished; high rise or council estate in suburbs; 80s: High rise in poor conditions 90s: Recent rise; gentrification and community redevelopment with new businesses
What is a Shanty towns?, e.g. Rocinha, a favela of Rio de Janerio, Dharavi area of Mumbai. Problems; Over crowding; Lack of services; Disease; Land tenure; Lack of jobs; Location.
Build cheap housing e.g. Cairo, 10 th Ramadan;Cairo, 10 th Ramadan; Greater Cairo Waste water project Metro Tourism Rocinha Rio de Janeiro and over viewRocinhaover view FAVELA-BAIRRO PROJECT, Rio de Janeiro