2Aims Why have rural and urban areas changed? To what extent can we define rural and urban areas?What are our perceptions of rural and urban areas?Where do we get them from?It is now unusual to find a clear distinction between rural and urban areas - now there is a gradual decrease in urban characteristics with increased distance from urban centre – known as the urban-rural continuum.
3Why have rural and urban areas changed? Rural and urban areas have changed due to 4 main processes :Counter Urbanisation : the movement of people and businesses away from towns and cities to rural areasSuburbanisation : the movement of people from the inner city areas to the suburbs of towns and cities leading to the growth of the suburbs and the extension of the urban area
4Why have rural and urban areas changed? Re-Urbanisation : the movement of people and businesses back to the CBD and Inner City due to redevelopment and regenerationIntra-urban migration : Any population movements made within urban areas e.g. as families develop and their housing needs change this is reflected in their intra-urban migration
23Did you have difficulties deciding? Parks in cities are open areas with plenty of wildlifeThere are close knit communities in towns and citiesAre rural villages close knit communities?Do all people in the countryside hunt, farm, fish and shoot?Is everyone living in towns and cities stressed and worried about crime?Increasingly difficult to distinguish between rural and urban, the transition is often gradual
24Defining rural and urban areas. Rural population size differs between countries - UK : 10,000; France : 2000; Ireland :200Functions in rural areas thought to be :Land use dominated by agriculture, forestry and open spacesContains smaller settlementsBased on a way of life characterised by close knit communitiesWhat do you think the functions in urban areas are perceived to be?
25Cloke’s Index of Rurality Cloke’s index categorises all areas of England and Wales into four criteria:extreme rural,intermediate rural,intermediate non-rural andextreme non-rural; as well as urban areas.Cloke used 16 different ways of drawing the conclusions, all of which lead to the measure of an area’s rurality.
26Cloke’s Index of Rurality Occupancy ratesCommutingFemale population (15-44)AmenitiesPopulation densityAgricultural employmentElderly populationRemoteness (distance to 50,000)
27Perception of rural and urban areas Rural and urban mean different things to different peopleLook at the following : Is this where people get their perceptions of rural and urban areas from?
28PerceptionWhat is it?culture, personal background and socioeconomic level influence a person’s perception of the geography of their local area
29Tasks Perceptions of settlements How can settlements be described? Your description of settlementsThe last activity should show you how culture, personal background and socioeconomic level influence a person’s perception of the geography of their local area and particular places.