Presentation on theme: "The Rural – Urban Continuum. Aims Why have rural and urban areas changed? To what extent can we define rural and urban areas? What are our perceptions."— Presentation transcript:
The Rural – Urban Continuum
Aims Why have rural and urban areas changed? To what extent can we define rural and urban areas? What are our perceptions of rural and urban areas? Where do we get them from? It is now unusual to find a clear distinction between rural and urban areas - now there is a gradual decrease in urban characteristics with increased distance from urban centre – known as the urban-rural continuum.
Why have rural and urban areas changed? Rural and urban areas have changed due to 4 main processes : 1.Counter Urbanisation : the movement of people and businesses away from towns and cities to rural areas 2.Suburbanisation : the movement of people from the inner city areas to the suburbs of towns and cities leading to the growth of the suburbs and the extension of the urban area
Why have rural and urban areas changed? 3.Re-Urbanisation : the movement of people and businesses back to the CBD and Inner City due to redevelopment and regeneration 4.Intra-urban migration : Any population movements made within urban areas e.g. as families develop and their housing needs change this is reflected in their intra-urban migration
A summary Copy this diagram
Are the following images urban or rural?
Did you have difficulties deciding? Parks in cities are open areas with plenty of wildlife There are close knit communities in towns and cities Are rural villages close knit communities? Do all people in the countryside hunt, farm, fish and shoot? Is everyone living in towns and cities stressed and worried about crime? Increasingly difficult to distinguish between rural and urban, the transition is often gradual
Defining rural and urban areas. Rural population size differs between countries - UK : 10,000; France : 2000; Ireland :200 Functions in rural areas thought to be : -Land use dominated by agriculture, forestry and open spaces -Contains smaller settlements -Based on a way of life characterised by close knit communities What do you think the functions in urban areas are perceived to be?
Cloke’s Index of Rurality Cloke’s index categorises all areas of England and Wales into four criteria: extreme rural, intermediate rural, intermediate non-rural and extreme non-rural; as well as urban areas. Cloke used 16 different ways of drawing the conclusions, all of which lead to the measure of an area’s rurality.
Cloke’s Index of Rurality Occupancy rates Commuting Female population (15-44) Amenities Population density Agricultural employment Elderly population Remoteness (distance to 50,000)
Perception of rural and urban areas Rural and urban mean different things to different people Look at the following : Is this where people get their perceptions of rural and urban areas from?
Perception What is it? culture, personal background and socioeconomic level influence a person’s perception of the geography of their local area
Tasks Perceptions of settlements How can settlements be described? Your description of settlements The last activity should show you how culture, personal background and socioeconomic level influence a person’s perception of the geography of their local area and particular places.