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Nutrition for Life: The food we eat
What is Nutrition? Nutrition is the science or study of food & the way the body uses it Nutrients are substances in food that provide energy, help form and maintain body tissues and are essential for growth. 6 classes of Nutrients: * Carbohydrates * Fats * Proteins * Vitamins * Minerals * Water
What is Nutrition continued…
Metabolism is the sum of the chemical processes that take place in your body to keep you alive and active. Metabolism requires energy from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins and is measured in calories. Carbohydrates are energy-giving nutrients that include sugars, starches, and fiber. Fats are the main form of energy storage in the body. Proteins are made of amino acids, which build and repair structures and regulate processes in the body.
Carbohydrates: are the bodies main source of energy-giving nutrients that include sugars, starches, and fiber. There are two kinds of Carbohydrates: Simple and Complex. Simple Carbohydrates are made up of single or double sugar molecules. Sugars are the simplest form of carbohydrates. They include fruits, vegetables, and milk. Complex Carbohydrates are many sugar molecules that are linked together such as starches, glycogen, and fiber.
Fiber: What is it? Fiber is not an essential nutrient.
It is a complex carbohydrate that provides little energy and cannot be digested. It helps push foods through the digestive system. (Helps cleanse the body.) Examples include: Fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and beans
Fats: are the body’s main form of long-term energy storage.
Fats are important for your body to function properly. They dissolve certain vitamins, help make blood clots, aids in the formation of hormones, cushion bones and vital organs, and makes you feel satisfied after eating. Fats are classified by the types of fatty acids they contain, either unsaturated or saturated.
The Good Fat: Unsaturated
Unsaturated fats are usually liquid at room temperature. They do not raise blood cholesterol levels. They come mostly from plants. They are classified as the following and believed to help lower the risk of heart disease: Monounsaturated fats consists of olive, peanut, and canola oils Polyunsaturated fats are in safflower, soybean, and corn oils. Omega-3 Fatty Acids come in the highly recommended fish, green leafy vegetables, nuts, tofu, and canola oil
The Bad Fat: Saturated Saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. They come from fats found in meat, lard, dairy products such as butter, cheese, ice cream, and milk, as well as palm and coconut oil. Eating too many saturated fats can lead to obesity, high cholesterol levels, and increased risk of heart disease.
The Ugly: Trans Fats Create from vegetables oils during the hydrogenation process turning them from liquid to a more solid form. Examples include margarine, shortening, cookies, cakes, TV dinners, candy bars, deep-fried french fries and crackers. Trans fats are used in many processed foods to enhance shelf life and flavor. They can cause heart disease if intake is not monitored. Since 2006, all food labels MUST include quantity of trans fats. (Look for hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated)
Cholesterol: a lipid found in all human and animal tissues
Your body makes cholesterol, as well as gets it from meat, eggs, and dairy products. Cholesterol is necessary for certain essential functions in the body. Needed to make Vitamin D, cell membranes, hormones, and bile There are two types: HDL (Good cholesterol): carries cholesterol back to the liver where it is removed from the blood LDL (Bad cholesterol): brings cholesterol to cells, when levels get too high in the blood, plaque forms on blood vessel walls which block blood flow to the heart, increase the risk of a heart attack
Protein: are made of amino acids, which are used in building and repairing structures in the body.
Muscles, skin, hair, and nails are made up mostly of protein. Proteins are also needed for hormones, enzymes, and other essential molecules. 20 different amino acids make up body proteins. Nine cannot be made in our bodies. These are called essential amino acids and must be eaten un your diet to meet your body’s needs.
Proteins Continued… Protein from our diets come from both animal and plant foods. Animal proteins such as meat, eggs, and dairy products contain all the essential amino acids and are called complete proteins. Most plant proteins like legumes, whole grains, and vegetables don’t have all the essential amino acids needed by our body are called incomplete proteins. A healthy diet must include all the essential amino acids. A diet that contains both plant and animal food can easily meet all your amino acid needs.
Vitamins: are carbon-containing nutrients that are needed in small amounts to maintain health and allow growth. Vitamins are classified by what they dissolve in: fat or water. Fat-soluble vitamins dissolve in fat. As a result, they can be stored in fat tissue and remain in the body for a long time. Examples include Vitamins A, D, E, and K. Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water. They are not stored in the body very well. Such vitamins are the 8 B vitamins and vitamin C.
Minerals: are chemical elements that are essential in small amounts to maintain good health.
Nutrient deficiency is the state of not having enough of a nutrient to maintain good health. A well-balanced diet can meet ALL vitamin and mineral needs.
Minerals continued… Three Important Minerals: Sodium Calcium Iron
Most of us eat more sodium than is healthy. Too much can lead to high blood pressure resulting in heart disease, stroke, or kidney failure Calcium Most teens do not eat enough calcium. Calcium is found in green, leafy vegetables (broccoli and spinach) and in calcium-fortified foods (bread and orange juice. Mostly found in your bones, which form between 9 and 17 years old. Iron Iron-deficiency is a worldwide problem that causes anemia. Red meats are rich in iron. Anemia is when there are not enough red blood cells to carry oxygen around the body.
Water: it makes up 60% of your body and is essential for almost every function to keep you ALIVE.
To be healthy, you should take in at least 2.5 quarts of water each day (about 8 glasses). This makes up for water lost through excretion and evaporation. Dehydration is when the body loses more water then it takes in. Mild dehydration can interfere with mental and physical performance. Severe dehydration can have very serious consequences, including death.
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